Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloning
Cloning is a technique that copies the cell information from a living host to produce new life. The host is used to collect the cell information, which is eventually inserted into an embryo that goes through a typical development cycle. Once a person is born, they are a physical representation of the host from whom the cell data was extracted.
Here listed are some major advantages and disadvantages of cloning:
Advantages of Cloning
1. Prevents extinction of certain species
Cloning appears to be a promising approach to restoring populations, as many organisms in the world are near endangerment and extinction. Cloning can even help increase the diversity of genetic traits by using the genetic information of already deceased species.
In addition, the successful resuscitation of extinct animals by cloning will enable researchers to fully understand the organisms as living things rather than just examining their remains. Despite being viewed as an artificial reproduction method, cloning frequently occurs in the wild. Asexual reproduction, the earliest type of cloning, is displayed by a wide range of creatures, including insects and bacteria.
2. Enables same-gender couples to have offspring
Cloning would enable same-gender couples to conceive a baby who was genetically their own as compared to using semen or egg banks to produce an embryo that could have been carried to term. Except for the first fertilization procedure to make the embryo, direct insertion of adult somatic cells in a woman wouldn't even need a male donor. The same would apply to men and the egg that needs to be fertilized.
3. It greatly aids in the replacement of organs
Due to any reason, if there is a need for an organ transplant, Cloning can be counted as a saviour process, especially in cases where an organ is not available. Through the process of genetic cloning, researchers can create and harvest new, fully functional organs using only a small number of cells from a particular organ. This is really helpful, especially with a large number of individuals on waiting lists for organ donations.
Consider the scenario of an organ failure, itwould be a simple solution to the existing problem of organ scarcity. In order to treat diseases and genetic problems, the cloning technique might potentially be utilized to fix existing cells or create new ones to replace lost or damaged ones.
4. Aid for diseases
Therapeutic cloning, which takes place with the same steps as adult Genetic cloning, allows the resulting embryo to develop for days before the stem cells are removed and encouraged to develop into body tissue or whole human body parts that will be utilized for a transplant or treatments of specific ailments. The final product would be an amount of skin, a portion of nerve tissue, or an artificial organ rather than a human being.
5. Solves the problem of infertility
Cloning is a procedure that enables anyone to conceive a child who is genetically their own are not capable because it utilizes adult somatic cells. It has the significant benefit of enabling infertile couples to have children, and the offspring would be genetically altered to meet the parents' desired expectations.
The somatic cells could be removed by medical professionals. Somatic cells from the male sperm are extracted during the procedure and inserted into the female ovum for fertilization. When the embryo is ready, it is placed into a mother, who might carry it for nine months until delivery. This suggests that cloning might help with fertility issues. Additionally, rather than merely having traits from one parent, the offspring will inherit the DNA and characteristics of both parents. Even those who were not sexually mature would be able to become parents because of this technology.
6. Increase in agricultural production
Cloning also has the potential to boost agricultural output, especially that of livestock and fresh vegetables, which is a significant benefit. The lack of genetic and random groupings in the genomes during meiosis is guaranteed by altering the biological mechanisms underlying the existing features of interest. Cloning speeds up the replication of the target gene and the organism that carries it compared to when it occurs naturally. The quantity of organisms created at any one time likewise rises as a result.
Disadvantages of Cloning
1. Not reliable
According to many scientists, cloning has not yet reached a point where it can be effectively applied to help preserve species. In fact, some scientists do not even accept cloning because it ignores the primary causes of extinction in the initial place, which are habitat degradation and hunting.
Additionally, critics claim that although cloning could be useful in emergency situations, the methods now in use to accomplish these objectives are regarded as insufficient to have any meaningful impact. Cloning vulnerable species is thought to be much more difficult than doing it with domesticated organisms (like cattle), and it would likely take years (or perhaps decades) to complete. Numerous attempts to bring back extinct and endangered animals have failed for a variety of reasons. Still, they have always shared one significant flaw that they were not exact clones of their claimed relatives.
2. Eliminates genetic diversity
Human life heavily depends on the variety of genes that result from having parents with various genetic traits. The fact that identical genes would limit our ability to adapt and battle against disease is a significant drawback of them. Moreover, we must never forget that cloning destroys the uniqueness that makes people beautiful. In addition, it would anticipate expectations and eliminate surprises.
3. High level of uncertainty
Every scientific progress has some positive aspects as well as equally negative ones. Cloning has many unexplored consequences and impacts. There is no reliable way to predict the potential psychological, social, and medical effects because it is a new field of study that is still being explored. The more successful something is, the more difficult it will be to control the problem. Human gene manipulation will have unexpected and uncontrollable effects that may affect our lives.
Moreover, there is still research and analysis needed before starting anything as absurd as human cloning. It might put the entire human race at risk. Cloned individuals may, at very minimum, experience serious health issues at some phase of their life. We may safely assume that the process will be a very big barrier to start with, given the issues that presently exist with animal cloning.
4. Not at all a safe process
Clones will not have the same behavioural traits despite both having the same genetic structure. Apart from that, there is no guarantee of their physical similarity. It is significant to remember that these traits are not solely determined by genetic structure. Naturally, there is a very strong probability that a pair of clones would experience different habitats and nutritional burdens, establishing unique modifications and contributions to each.
Cell mutation is one of the genuine risks associated with cloning, and it has been linked to the emergence of new, more severe genetic illnesses in people. In fact, a lot of people think that this kind of thing will bring civilization to an end. Even if the process utilizes the recipient's organ's cells, cloning can still result in cell mutation, as already mentioned. This may cause the cell structure of the original and reproduced organs to differ significantly.
5. Cloning is unethical
The ethical issues with cloning are one of the most persuasive arguments against it. Critics claim that even the simple act of producing clones involves the exploitation of life, apart from the idea of controlling living organisms.
Consider the case; before a successful clone of Dolly the sheep could be developed, more than 277 efforts had been made. This only implies that multiple "failed" attempts would be required if people were to be cloned. As a result, critics strongly believe that human cloning would be unethical until these issues are fully understood and settled.
6. It can easily be misused
Since there is always a chance that cloning technology will be misused, researchers should make every effort to keep it under constant observation. The truth is that there is always someone looking to take advantage of such technology, and many believe that the only way to avoid this situation is to not even consider cloning.
7. It may promote discrimination
Discrimination and prejudice are definitely present in today's world, whether it is because of racial, linguistic, or social differences. Ultimately, cloned persons would feel less "human" than some other humans who are not the products of cloning.