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Advantages and Disadvantages of Embedded System

Embedded systems, also known as integrated systems, are mashups of hardware and software created to accomplish a certain goal. In other terms, an embedded system is a system built around a microcontroller and intended to control a certain set of tasks. Small chips called microcontrollers perform comparable tasks as computer processors. It contains a built-in processor, memory, and programmable peripherals for input and output.

Put another way; an embedded computer is a tiny, programmable computer installed inside a mechanical or electrical device to enable the electrical equipment to carry out certain duties or jobs automatically. An embedded system may function alone or as a component of a bigger system. Typically, it is a component of a larger system that is intended to carry out or regulate a certain function.

Our everyday lives now include the usage of embedded systems, whether it is in our smart watches, automatic washing machines, digital cameras, video game consoles, DVD players, printers, or vehicles. utilised as a system. A straightforward illustration of this is the Fire Alarm Device, an embedded system whose sole function is to detect smoke.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Embedded System

Types of Embedded System

Based on their functional and performance requirements, embedded systems are divided into four types, which are as follows:

1. Standalone Embedded Systems

Host systems like computers are not necessary for standalone embedded devices. It can complete its own tasks; it accepts analog or digital input from the input port, processes it, does calculations and data transformations, and then returns the resulting data through the attached device, which either drives, controls, or displays the data. MP3 players, digital cameras, video game consoles, microwaves, and other devices are examples of stand-alone embedded systems.

2. Real-time Embedded System

They follow rigorous deadlines and are employed when a given work must be completed within a certain amount of time. Soft and hard real-time systems are separated out of these. Hard real-time systems, for instance, are used in industrial machinery when stringent deadlines must be met.

A system that returns a needed o/p at a certain moment is referred to as a real-time embedded system. Different embedded system types adhere to a deadline for job fulfilment. Soft and hard real-time systems are the two categories into which real-time embedded systems are divided.

3. Embedded Systems That Are Networked

To access the resources, this kind of embedded device is connected to a network. The connected network might be a LAN, WAN, or Internet. Any type of connection, including wired and wireless, is possible. This subset of embedded systems is thought to be the one with the quickest rate of development right now.

A system known as an embedded web server connects all embedded devices to a web server, allowing a web browser to view and manage all of the embedded devices in the system. All the sensors are interconnected and use the TCP/IP protocol in the home security system Xplan for LAN network embedded systems.

4. Mobile Embedded Systems

Portable embedded devices, including cell phones, mobiles, digital cameras, MP3 players, personal digital assistants, etc., employ mobile embedded systems. Memory and other resources are these gadgets' main drawbacks.

The Fundamental Elements of Embedded System

Embedded systems typically consist of three parts, which are as follows:

1. Hardware: The main component, also known as a microcontroller, microprocessor, or chip, is one of the several components found on the printed circuit board (PCB). The embedded system's microprocessor or microcontroller is dependent on the entire application.

Microprocessors are utilised when the system must be handled in a more complicated way instead of microcontrollers, which are often employed for modest jobs. More than 90% of embedded systems employ microcontrollers. The microcontroller contains its own CPU, RAM, and ROM.

2. Software: It is sometimes referred to as mostly application software since, in an embedded system, a microcontroller and microprocessor are programmed specifically for a given application. Application software is referred to as such since the program burnt into the microcontroller is created with a specific objective in mind.

As an illustration, the microprocessor placed in the household induction cooker particularly regulates the voltage, shows it, and is used to set the timer. The washing machine's microprocessor performs the timing function. In this manner, the software that must be loaded into each machine's microcontroller depends on how it will be used.

3. Operating System: It is also software, but it serves a different purpose than application software. Operating systems are not used by smaller embedded system types. However, the embedded system's operating system is utilised where the work is challenging and several operations must be completed.

The operating system's job is to get everything working together and get the application software to function as intended. It must be completed, and the precise result must be delivered.

4. Most embedded systems run on a Real-Time Operating System, which means that no process should go past either the logical or timing deadlines.

There are also two types of real-time operating systems.

  1. Soft Real-Time Operating System: - Soft Real Time Operating System prevents human loss when a system, such as a banking system, stock exchange system, or ATM machine, fails for whatever reason.
  2. Hard Real-Time Operating System: A system whose failure is likely to result in human loss is referred to be a hard real-time operating system. such as the real-time operating systems used in satellites, nuclear power plants, and trains, among others.

Features of Embedded Systems

The typical function of an embedded system is a single, ongoing job. For instance, a printer simply prints documents.

  • They finish all tasks within the allotted time.
  • The work is efficiently completed by the embedded system.
  • Systems that are embedded require minimal to no human interaction.
  • It operates with relatively little electricity.
  • Because they always do the assignment perfectly, they are incredibly trustworthy.
  • Embedded systems are inexpensive.
  • They need little user interface and are very simple to operate.
  • Embedded systems are task- and time-specific since they operate in real-time and reactively, respectively. Real-Time refers to a response that is made in response to the external environment, whereas Reactive refers to a response that operates based on input or reaction.

Advantages of Embedded Systems

The following are some benefits of employing embedded systems:

  1. Cost: Because embedded systems are made to do a specific task and don't need as much processing power and memory as a general-purpose computer, they may be comparatively affordable.
  2. Sizes: Embedded systems may be extremely tiny and small, making them suited for usage in devices with limited space.
  3. Reliability: Because embedded systems are frequently employed in crucial systems and are created for a specific purpose, they may be incredibly dependable.
  4. Effectiveness: Embedded systems are energy-efficient, making them appropriate for usage in portable electronics and other applications where power consumption is a problem.
  5. Customisation: Embedded systems offer a great degree of flexibility and may be tailored to match the unique requirements of the application in which they are employed.
  6. Real-time operation: Many embedded systems are built so they may react to inputs and events as they happen rather than in a planned sequence.
  7. Integration: Embedded systems are adaptable and important components in many various sorts of applications since they can be readily incorporated with other gadgets and systems.

Disadvantages of Embedded Systems

Additionally, there are a few drawbacks of employing embedded systems:

  1. Limited resources: Compared to general-purpose computers, embedded systems frequently have less processing power, memory, and other resources since they are made to carry out a specific mission.
  2. Limited flexibility: Because embedded systems are made for a specialised purpose, they are less adaptable than general-purpose computers and may have trouble meeting evolving or new needs.
  3. The difficulty of programming: Programming and debugging embedded systems may be challenging, especially for people unfamiliar with the hardware and software platforms in use.
  4. Absence of standardisation: The lack of standards in embedded system development might make it challenging for developers to deal with a range of various platforms and tools.
  5. Hardware dependence: Embedded systems are sometimes intimately coupled to certain hardware platforms, making it challenging to upgrade the system without making major modifications to the hardware.
  6. Limited support: Because embedded systems are specialized, they might not have as much documentation and support as general-purpose computers, making it more challenging for developers to get assistance and resources while working with them.

Where Are Embedded Systems Used?

Embedded systems are used in a wide range of applications, including:

  1. Consumer electronics: Many consumer electronics products, including smartphones, tablets, laptops, and smart TVs, incorporate embedded systems.
  2. Industrial control: Embedded systems are utilised in industrial settings to manage and keep an eye on equipment and production processes.
  3. Transportation: To regulate numerous systems and offer navigation and safety features, embedded systems are employed in transportation systems, including vehicles, aircraft, and trains.
  4. Medical equipment: Critical functions are monitored and managed by embedded systems in medical equipment, including pacemakers, insulin pumps, and diagnostic tools.
  5. Military: Critical functionality and reliability are provided by embedded systems in military hardware, such as drones, missiles, and communication systems.Top of Form
  6. Communication: To control and direct data flow, embedded systems are employed in communication systems, including routers, switches, and modems.
  7. Energy: To monitor and manage the production and distribution of energy, embedded systems are utilised in energy systems, including solar panels, wind turbines, and smart grid systems.
  8. Home automation: To control and monitor different appliances and systems in the house, such as lighting, heating, and security, embedded systems are utilised.

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