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Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydraulic System

It is a system that relies on hydraulic oil compression to create fluid energy that is used to power and regulate machinery and equipment like hydraulic cylinders and motors. It is distinguished by the fact that its operating fluid is pressurized oil.

Depending on how it is used and how it is applied, a little force can be multiplied by hundreds and transformed into a large force. Excavators, cranes, and trucks are examples of heavy machinery frequently employing the hydraulic system. Utilising the hydraulic system makes lifting or moving a weight simple, safe, and controllable.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Hydraulic System

Components of a Hydraulic System

Let's go through each component of the hydraulic system.

Three main sections make up the hydraulic system:

1. First, let's talk about the hydraulic generator.

An oil tank, an electric motor, and a hydraulic pump are all parts of a hydraulic generator. An oil tank is a container used to store hydraulic oil.

This tank not only holds oil, but it also uses heat dissipation to cool down the hot hydraulic oil and circulates to flush out air bubbles and unwanted objects.

An engine or an electric motor must drive a hydraulic pump. It provides mechanical energy to it by being connected to a hydraulic pump.

The hydraulic pump is responsible for converting the mechanical energy from an electric motor into fluid energy. At the pump intake, a tiny vacuum is created to draw hydraulic oil from the oil tank as the internal parts rotate to produce high-pressure oil.

2. Hydraulic Controller

Before the high-pressure oil produced by the hydraulic generator reaches the actuator, it is regulated by the hydraulic controller in terms of flow direction, speed, and pressure. It is made up of a flow control valve, a directional control valve, and a relief valve.

  • The relief valve modifies the fluid pressure produced by the pump to the desired level.
  • The directional control valve modifies the fluid's flow direction to alter the actuator's operational orientation (e.g., forward reverse).
  • The actuator's operating speed may be changed by adjusting the flow rate that is delivered to the actuator through the flow control valve.

3. Next, let's have a look at the hydraulic driving system.

In the hydraulic drive unit, fluid energy is transformed into mechanical energy. The entire procedure is carried out in this part using high-pressure oil. As a driving mechanism, this uses a hydraulic cylinder and motor. The most popular among them is the hydraulic cylinder, which performs a variety of functions, including pushing, pulling, and reciprocating and linearly moving items.

We have examined each part of the hydraulic system individually up to this point. In addition to the primary devices, there are also peripheral devices like pressure gauges and filters that purge working fluids of impurities.

How Do Hydraulic Systems work?

Let's now investigate how these gadgets function in order.

The hydraulic pump first absorbs the hydraulic tank's hydraulic oil. At this stage, a hydraulic pump coupled to an electric motor constantly reciprocates to deliver mechanical energy to the pump. This is what rotates the hydraulic pump's internal gears, resulting in the production of high-pressure oil.

Here, mechanical energy is converted to fluid energy.

To control pressure and direction, the high-pressure oil next travels to the pressure/directional control valve. The actuator is activated by the pressure oil that enters the actuator through the flow control valve in this manner. Depending on the actuator's capabilities, different tasks will be carried out using rotational motion or reciprocating linear motion (hydraulic cylinder) (hydraulic motor).

Here, the mechanical energy is once again transformed from the fluid energy. The valve will allow the hydraulic oil to return to the oil tank after the procedure is finished. The hydraulic oil in the oil tank is then drawn back up to the hydraulic pump, where it is transformed into high-pressure oil.

To enable the actuator to run continuously, these procedures are repeated. Through the system process employing hydraulic oil, we are able to create and regulate significant mechanical energy with only a tiny amount of effort.

Application of Hydraulic System

Let's discuss some possible uses for the hydraulic system.

Since the hydraulic system can be controlled safely and precisely while amplifying a tiny force to a bigger force, it is used in various sectors. It is typically utilized when a machine's linear motion, rotational motion, or a larger force is required.

It may be used in various kinds of industrial settings, including those involving construction and transportation equipment, including trucks, excavators, cranes, bulldozers, special-purpose vehicles, and lifts. CNC lathes, milling machines, drilling machines, transfer machines, and grinding machines are a few examples of machine tools. equipment used to forge, cast, and cut steel and metal.

robotics, which includes robots, rockets, and many other things!

Today, we spent more time studying the hydraulic system. Its operation may resemble a pneumatic system, but because the working fluids are different, its properties, applications, and equipment are slightly different.

History of Hydraulic Machine

Yorkshire-born English inventor Joseph Bramah was born. Joseph Bramah constructed the first hydraulic press in England in 1795. After then, the Industrial Revolution opened the door for the automation of equipment, including printing presses, cranes, cutting, and stamping tools, which led to the automation of the production process.

He is one of the two individuals who may be credited with founding hydraulic engineering, along with William George Armstrong. But the hydraulic system underwent significant alteration after that.

An American inventor by the name of Harry Franklin Vickers. He created several hydraulic system innovations, leading the American Society of Mechanical Engineers to dub him the "Father of Industrial Hydraulics" in 1956.

Types of Hydraulic Systems

Hydraulic systems are used in many different aspects of our everyday lives nowadays. A hydraulic system is frequently used for lifting, holding, and hauling. The pressure of the incompressible fluid would be used by the hydraulic system to deliver power.

Most of the time, pumps are used to remove fluid from the reservoir. These are straightforward, economically sound, and simply and precisely controllable systems. One benefit of hydraulic systems is that they deliver a consistent force regardless of speed.

There are two types of hydraulic systems: open-loop hydraulic systems and closed-loop hydraulic systems.

1. An Open Loop

  • When the actuating mechanism is not engaged, there will be fluid flow but no pressure in an open loop system.
  • The fresh fluid travels toward the pump intake after flowing from the actuator to the reservoir.
  • A directional control valve is employed.
  • A benefit of open-loop hydraulic systems is their low heat production.
  • All open-loop hydraulic circuits must have sealed or pressurised reservoirs to prevent the presence of external pollutants and improve fluid flow. In older open-loop hydraulic circuits, air bubbles in the fluid were allowed to escape through a large reservoir.
  • Open-loop hydraulic systems are effective and affordable for simple applications.
  • Open-loop hydraulic systems include, among other things, boilers, heat exchangers, compressors, turbines, and pumps.

2. A Closed Loop

  • When the pump runs in a closed-loop system, there will be pressure on the fluid.
  • In a closed-loop system, fluid will flow continuously from the actuator to the pump without touching the reservoir.
  • A charge pump or feed pump is an auxiliary pump used in closed-loop systems.
  • Closed-loop hydraulic systems provide the benefit of accurate response to actuation.
  • A closed-loop hydraulic system would be a superior option for complicated applications with several separate. components
  • Examples of closed-loop hydraulic systems include internal combustion engines, bomb calorimeters, reciprocating air compressors, refrigeration systems, piston-cylinder arrangements without valves, Rankine cycles (the running fluid is continually evaporated and condensed), etc.

Advantages of Hydraulic System

  • Since hydraulic oil cannot compress, it may be pressed to extremely high pressures, which allows hydraulic systems to generate enormous amounts of force (tonnes together).
  • The viscosity of hydraulic oil causes hydraulic systems to operate more slowly. It's important to remember that slower pace is better for heavier work since it reduces the likelihood of accidents.
  • It is possible to manage speed quite precisely.
  • If the system is overburdened, it stalls. The system will resume operation as soon as the load is lessened. It is feasible to use automatic and safety circuits.
  • Self-lubricating systems are hydraulic systems. A separate lubrication system is not required.
  • A hydraulic system is particularly simple to design and build since pipes can be simply bent to fit in the available area.
  • It is simple to generate, transfer, store, control, maintain, and transform hydraulic power.
  • Hydraulic systems produce motion that is consistent and smooth, with Fewer Steps And More Precisely Regulated Speed And Force.
  • Hydraulic power can be divided and distributed more easily than other types of energy.
  • The low vibration and noise that hydraulic pumps make.
  • The output of a hydraulic system might be angular, rotational, or linear. The compound motion may be generated in a hydraulic system without the need for gears or any mechanical component.

Disadvantages of Hydraulic System

  • Oil leaks result in filthy surroundings, a slippery surface, and increased accident risk.
  • Because hydraulic fluids are petroleum-based, there is a danger of a fire.
  • Hydraulic systems shouldn't be used in warm weather. Due to the possibility of overheating, oil's properties may be destroyed, it could turn caustic, it could evaporate, and it could even catch fire.
  • The slower operating speed of hydraulic systems might be a drawback if a higher rate of work is required.
  • Operators should use extra caution while dealing with hydraulic systems and get the necessary safety training. Never ignore the internal oil pressure or the power of an oil spill since they might completely sever a person's body. Special care must be taken to safeguard hydraulic components.

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