Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar panels


In order to generate electricity that may be used to power electrical equipment, solar panels, also known as "PV panels," utilize the sun's light, which is composed of small energy particles known as "photons." The sun is the source of solar energy.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar panels

Solar panels can be used for a wide range of purposes apart from only producing electricity for domestic and commercial solar electric systems. Among many others, remote sensing, telecommunications equipment, cabin remote power systems, and more are examples.

How Solar Panels Work

Sunlight from solar panels is captured and transformed into electricity, then used for electrical power loads. A clean and sustainable energy source is solar energy. Layers of silicon, phosphorous (which provides the negative charge), and boron are found in every solar cell of a solar panel.

Numerous separate solar cells make up solar panels (which provide a positive charge). An electrical current is initiated as photons are absorbed by solar panels. The electric field of the solar cells is created as electrons are freed from their atomic orbits. The energy generated when photons impact the solar panel's surface causes them to be drawn into a directed current as a result. "Photovoltaic Effect" is the term used to describe the entire process. The number of solar panels needed to generate enough solar energy to satisfy a normal home's energy requirements can be installed on the roof with more than adequate room. Any surplus energy generated is fed into the main power system, which lowers the demand for electricity at night.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar panels

The energy used by the house at night is generated during the day by a solar array that is balanced and connected to the grid. In the event that a solar generator produces more electricity than is needed for a home, its owner may be compensated through net metering programmes.

In off-grid solar projects, components such as battery banks, charge controllers, and typically inverters are necessary. The charge controller transmits the solar array's direct current (DC) electricity to the battery bank. After the inverter converts the DC to AC, which can be used for equipment that doesn't run on DC, electricity is then extracted from the battery bank.

With the help of an inverter, solar panel arrays can be sized to meet the demands of even the most exacting electrical loads. The AC can be used to power loads in residential and commercial structures, recreational vehicles and boats, distant cabins, cottages, and homes, remote traffic controls, telecommunications equipment, oil and gas flow monitoring, RTU, SCADA, and a lot more.

Types of Solar Panels

Four broad categories can be used to group solar panels:

  • Monocrystalline Solar Panels
  • Polycrystalline Solar Panels
  • Passivated Emitter and Rear Contact Cells (PERC) Solar Panels
  • Thin-Film Solar Panels

The type of solar cells inside the solar panels determines their performance. Each cell differs in appearance and has a distinct property.

Monocrystalline Solar Panels

The term "single crystal panel" is also used to describe monocrystalline solar panels. They are constructed from pure silicon crystals divided into many wafers, which make up the cells. These wafers have an unusual shape and uniform color since they are cut into an octagonal shape. Since they are comprised of only silicon, they can be recognized by their distinctive black or dark blue color.

Half Cut cells are a type of technology used in monocrystalline solar panels. Here, the square-shaped cells are divided in half, doubling the number of cells. All of the cells on the panel's top half are connected in one series, while those on the bottom are connected in a different series.

This enables the panel to keep producing power in its upper half even when its bottom half is in shadow. As a result, installations with partial shadow concerns generate more power overall from half-cut cells.


  • Monocrystalline solar panels generate more kW/hour of electricity due to their better conversion efficiency. They have greater room for the electrons to flow because they are made of a single silicon crystal.
  • Compared to other panels, monocrystalline panels have stronger heat resistance, indicating that the heat has less of an impact on their ability to create electricity and that they do so more efficiently in hotter environments.
  • The production of single-crystal silicon cells is a complicated process. Hence monocrystalline panels are more expensive than conventional panels.

Polycrystalline Solar Panels

There are several silicon crystals included in polycrystalline solar panels. They are produced using broken pieces of silicon that are heated and then poured into square molds. A polycrystalline solar panel is made from these crystals once they have cooled and then cut into thin wafers and assembled. 'Multi-crystalline' panels are another name for them.


  • Polycrystalline solar panels are less efficient than monocrystalline ones because there is less space for electrons to flow because they are made up of many silicon crystals.
  • The cells' square shape and gleaming blue color with straight edges serve as telltale signs that a panel is polycrystalline.
  • The production method for these panels is easier, and less silicon is wasted during the entire process, making them more economical than monocrystalline solar panels.

Passivated Emitter and Rear Cell (PERC) Solar Panels

Conventional solar panels absorb only a small portion of sunlight and some flow through them. PERC solar panels are produced utilizing cutting-edge technology and are referred to as "rear cells." The solar cells' backs are modified by adding a layer. It is much more effective because of the additional layer in the PERC panels, which enables the sun's energy to be reabsorbed from the panels' backside.

The most powerful solar panels now on the market, called Mono-PERC panels, are made with high efficiency using PERC technology and monocrystalline cells.


  • As PERC solar panels absorb more sunlight than conventional solar panels, they are more effective.
  • The solar panels include an extra layer on the rear that reflects the sunlight that hasn't been fully absorbed back to the solar cells for further absorption.

Thin-film Solar Panels

In contrast to monocrystalline and polycrystalline ones, photovoltaic materials such as amorphous silicon (a-Si), copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS), and cadmium telluride are employed in the fabrication of thin-film solar panels (CdTe). It becomes lighter and easier to install when these materials are applied to a sturdy surface like glass, metal, or plastic.

Categories Of Thin-Film Solar Panels Include;

  • Cadmium telluride (CdTe)

The least carbon-intensive solar panels are CdTe. However since cadmium is poisonous and difficult to recycle, it raises environmental concerns.

  • Amorphous silicon (a-Si)

The silicon in amorphous silicon panels is typically amorphous in form and has no molecular structure.

  • Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS)

A thin coating of copper, indium, gallium, and selenium is deposited on a glass or plastic sheet to create CIGS. Since CIGS has a higher capacity for absorption than other thin-film panels, it is the most effective among them.


  • In comparison to conventional silicon panels, thin-film solar cells are more flexible and lighter, making installation simpler.
  • Compared to solar panels made of silicon crystals, they are less effective. Their carbon footprints are smaller than those of other panels and are also more affordable.
  • Large rooftop spaces or locations with lots of open space are most suited for these panels.

Advantages of Solar Panels

1. Reduce the Cost of the Electricity Bill

The most well-known benefit of solar panels is that they'll help you spend less on electricity. Using solar energy to generate your energy will enable you to utilize the grid less frequently in the long term. Therefore, by paying less for power, you can further lower your energy costs. Because solar energy is both renewable and reasonably priced, you won't be liable for paying for the electricity your solar panels produce.

Numerous advantages come from investing more money each month in your family or other priorities. One of the main benefits of solar energy is cost reduction.

2. Renewable Energy Sources

Renewable energy sources can produce a limitless amount of energy. Solar electricity is a renewable resource of power. Everyone can profit from the free energy that the sun provides thanks to renewable solar energy. As a result of the sun's continuous production of a sizable amount of energy, your solar panels essentially never run out of power.

Instead of worrying about the sun's energy depleting, we may enjoy the sun's beams as they strike our solar panels and generate free, clean electricity. Solar electricity not only emits no greenhouse gases but is also clean energy because it is produced from a renewable resource.

3. Boost the Value of Your Home

By adding solar panels to your property, you can increase its value because they provide several benefits for homeowners. Home values will increase for those with solar panels compared to those without. The reason for this is that while one residence will be largely dependent on the grid, the other will be self-sufficient in terms of energy. Enjoying the relief from the burden of rising energy prices.

Once more, this is a result of the initial purchase of solar panels, which is considerable, but they are also a great investment. If you decide to install solar on your property, the money you spend on solar panels will benefit your home, and you might see a sizable return on your investment.

4. Environmentally Friendly

Solar energy is clean, renewable, non-polluting, and good for the environment. Unlike other oils and coals, solar energy does not directly contribute to the generation of greenhouse gases or fossil fuels. As a result, it can be concluded that solar panels are safe items for the environment.

Nowadays, it's essential to practice environmental responsibility, and talking out against environmental change could boost your standing in your neighborhood.

It is without a doubt one of the key benefits of solar panels and a major driver behind people switching to solar energy. Homeowners may relax since they know their electricity doesn't hurt the environment.

5. Numerous Easily Accessible Products

Another significant advantage of solar panels is the vast selection of products made with solar panels that are easily accessible. Solar panels are made for performance for people looking for a high-end system to last for a long time. For homeowners looking for a great budget system, there is also a large selection available.

Thermal solar panels are another alternative for people who use the majority of their energy for heating and want to use solar to cut expenditures. For residences that need to store their energy to utilize at night, solar panels with integrated battery systems are available. Having such a wide range of options is quite beneficial for homeowners because it enables them to get solar panels that are customized to their needs and preferences.

6. Low Maintenance Expenses

As new technology becomes more accessible, solar panel maintenance is becoming increasingly simple. Due to the presence of guarantees for extraordinarily extended periods of time, solar panel maintenance is becoming less and less important. This is great since it makes it possible for households to purchase solar without having to maintain or check the system every week. Low upkeep also translates into lower expenditures.

Your solar panel system won't require any further financial commitments to maintain it in top condition. It is suggested that you have your solar panels cleaned on a regular basis if they have accumulated any dirt or dust.

7. Homeowners Can Become Energy Independent

You can achieve complete energy independence by adding solar panels to your home. You wouldn't need to purchase electricity from the grid if your system was effective enough to produce enough energy to power your house.

This means households won't ever again have to deal with growing electricity rates, which is in addition to being a fantastic accomplishment. You'll save a lot of money if you generate your power. You wouldn't be impacted by a power outage or grid maintenance on their power lines.

According to many people who have achieved energy independence, it's a huge benefit of solar panels.

8. Excess Solar Can Be Sold to The Grid

Energy that is not being used in your home can be sold to the grid to generate additional income. You are also giving your community access to clean, renewable energy. You and your neighbourhood can receive cleaner electricity from the grid by harnessing solar energy. For the purpose of selling additional energy to the grid, some homeowners upgrade their systems.

In order to encourage homes with excess energy to use them, the government offers some great feed-in tariffs. Usually, these tariffs vary from one state to another. The two most common forms are fixed-rate and time-varying tariffs. The price per KW is determined by these two tariffs, which are also a great way to shorten the system's payback period. The ability to create free money using solar panels is a significant benefit.

Disadvantages of Solar Panels

1. Requires Sunlight

This implies no energy production while the sun is not shining. The production of power is particularly impacted at night and in the cold. Most individuals have now invested in battery backup systems, which store energy when the sun is not shining. However, adding backup systems can drive up the entire cost of mounting a solar panel. Most of the time, it must do more to advance solar energy technologies.

Solar panels are ineffective at night, forcing you to rely on your local utility grid or purchase solar batteries to store extra energy you may use at night. Other renewable energy sources can be used at night, unlike solar panels, which are ineffective at night. The ability to draw power during such days is further decreased by storms or hurricanes, in addition to the previous point.

2. Excessively High Upfront Capital Costs

Even though installing solar panels would have significant long-term advantages, the initial fees can be punishing. Depending on your chosen supplier, you can pay for an arm and a leg for solar panels. With the assistance of manufacturing businesses, it is easier to estimate the full installation cost.

Many countries have provided tax breaks and subsidies to encourage the installation of solar panels, but the cost might be intolerable if you have money set aside for this purpose. Additionally, it could take as long as 10 to 15 years before you recover your initial investment. It doesn't matter how long the payback period is; anything that will lessen our reliance on fossil fuels is worthwhile.

3. The Efficiency Issue

There is a tonne of information available about how ineffective solar energy is. The majority of people need to be made aware of what efficiency is. When people see 15% efficiency, they believe it to be inadequate. They believe that 100% efficiency would be optimal. The quantity of area needed to produce energy is the key to efficiency.

The fact that a 250-watt solar panel with a 15% efficiency produces the same amount of power as a 250-watt solar panel with a 20% efficiency may surprise you. It is clear that the sizes differ. Generally speaking, smaller panels perform better than larger ones.

The need to power compact gadgets requires greater efficiency because of the limited space available. However, generating electricity for any household purpose is sufficient with a roof. The only time rooftop solar panels are purchased when there is a tiny amount of roof space. The fact that more effective panels cost more is also important to consider.

4. Installation Area

Solar energy installations can be placed on roofs that can generate enough energy for residential users, so they may only need a little space. However, a considerable area is needed for the system to supply electricity effectively and consistently for large businesses.

5. Difficulties with Relocation

There are obstacles to moving solar energy technologies like solar panels. If you decide to vacate, the solar contracting business will change the leasing agreement to the new occupant. Removing the solar panels will not cost these businesses any further money.

They have knowledgeable staff who cooperates with realtors, title agents, and inspection agents to guarantee a seamless transition to the new renter. If you take the solar panels and leasing agreement with you, the company can move more quickly; but, you'll be charged for the costs of removal and reinstallation.

6. Solar Panel Materials Can Cause Pollution

There needs to be current information on the viability of recycling PV panels. Solar panels have a great lifespan of roughly 50 years, but getting rid of these materials can negatively influence the environment. Over the years, this issue has been disregarded and needs to be dealt with immediately.

7. Negative Energy Balance

Solar energy cannot be relied upon to drive a nation's economy due to the unpredictable nature of the sun. Scientists anticipate that, by 2020, solar energy technologies, which are currently under development, will be able to serve the majority of the world's population. Before that, our primary energy source will continue to be fossil fuels.


Future generations will be dependent on solar energy. It is an economical, environmentally friendly, and safe choice. Additionally, it is replenishable, making it a renewable source of energy. Therefore, it does not contribute to pollution. As a result, to conserve the earth, we must strive to use solar panels more and more.

Next Topic#

Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now


Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Trending Technologies

B.Tech / MCA