Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

Alexander The Great

Alexander the Great, often referred to as Alexander III of Macedon, was a ruler of the Macedonian kingdom in ancient Greece. At the age of 20, he succeeded his father, Philip II, on the throne in 336 BC. During the majority of his reign, he led a protracted military campaign into Western Asia and Egypt. After conquering Asia Minor, Alexander defeated Achaemenid Persia in numerous crucial engagements, notably those at Issus and Gaugamela.

Alexander The Great

He then deposed Darius III and seized control of the whole Achaemenid Empire. When Persia fell, the Macedonian Empire controlled a sizable area between the Adriatic Sea and the Indus River. In 326 BC, Alexander invaded India in an effort to reach the "ends of the globe and the Great Outer Sea." At the Battle of the Hydaspes, he decisively defeated Porus, an ancient Indian monarch who ruled over what is now Punjab.

More than twenty cities that bear his name were created by him, with Alexandria in Egypt being the most well-known. Alexander established Greek colonists, and as a consequence, Greek culture was disseminated, culminating in the overwhelming domination of Hellenistic civilisation and influence as far east as the Indian subcontinent. Greek became the lingua franca of the area and was the primary language of the Byzantine Empire up until its collapse in the mid-15th century AD. The Hellenistic period gave rise to the Roman Empire and contemporary Western culture.


The Stern Leonidas of Epirus provided Alexander's early education; a relative, Philip, had chosen to instruct Alexander in mathematics, horseback riding, and archery. However, he was unable to control Alexander's resolute and rebellious spirit.

Alexander's tutor after this was Lysimex, who reined in Alexander's rebellious attitude and encouraged him to engage in combat. Alexander was given Aristotle as a private tutor when he reached 13 by Philip. India refers to Aristotle as Aristotle. Aristotle taught Alexander literature and eloquence throughout the following three years. In addition, he sparked Alexander's interest in the fields of physics, philosophy, and medicine, all of which would later play a significant role in his life.

Alexander and His Combat Power (Alexandra as a Warrior)

Alexander saw his father's development of Macedonia from a weak state into a significant military force. Alexander was raised seeing his father's triumph in the Balkans. Alexander demonstrated to his father that he had mastered horseback riding at the age of 12 by successfully controlling the trained horse Bucephalus when no one else could. Philip and his friends were first nervously awaiting the outcome. They thought Philip's son's career and life were about to end. Still, in the future, Alexander's father broke down in floods of delight and pride as soon as he watched the triumph and began applauding in celebration.

"My son, you should look at yourself and this great kingdom; this kingdom of Macedonia is too small in front of you; you have infinite talent," he said after getting off his horse and kissing his son. Alexander rode Busselhlls in many of his battles throughout his life. The horse stayed with him until the very end.

Philip left his 16-year-old son, Alexander, to administer the kingdom of Macedonia in his absence when he amassed his massive Macedonian army in 340, implying that it was only because Alexander was perceived as being so responsible at such a young age. The Thracian tribe of the Medes revolted on Macedonia's northeastern border, endangering the nation as the Macedonian army advanced into Thrace. After assembling an army, Alexander began to use it against the rebels. He swiftly routed the Medi tribe, took control of their fort, and gave it his name, Alexandroupolis.

When the Macedonian army invaded Greece two years later, in 338 BC, Philip appointed his son Alexander as a senior commander in the military. In the Battle of Chaeronea, the Greeks were routed, and Alexander bravely put an end to the Greek Forces-Theban Secret Band. According to certain historians, Alexander's bravery was the sole foundation for Macedonia's victory.

Phillip's Murder and Family Conflict

Immediately following the Greeks' defeat at Chaeronea, the royal family started to break apart. Philip wed Coleoptera as well. Cleopatra's uncle wonders who is Philip's true heir during the wedding ceremony. In response to the man calling him the "Bastard Child," Alexander hurled his cup in his direction. Alexander slumped to the ground after Alexander's semi-consciousness caused Philip to stand up and aim his sword at him. "Look, here is the man who is ready to win from Europe to Asia but at this time cannot cross a table without losing his equilibrium," Alexander then screamed out in rage. After that, he travelled to Epiris with his mother. Alexander was eventually permitted to return, although he spent a considerable amount of time after that off from the Macedonian court.

The Monarchy of Alexander

During the wedding of Alexander's sister to the Molossian monarch in 336, Pausanias assassinated King Philip II at the feast. Alexander's hunger for power was at its height when his father passed away when he was 19. With the armament of the Macedonian army, including the military that had battled Caronia, he assembled the general and the army. The soldiers assisted Alexander in assassinating other dynasty heirs and proclaimed him the feudal monarch.

Olympia assisted her son in this, and when he killed Philip and Cleoptera's daughter, he had her commit suicide. The Corinthian League came under Alexander's rule as the feudal monarch of Macedonia, and the southern kingdoms of Greece started to celebrate Philip II's passing and express themselves freely.

Athena has her own goals as well. The state sought to take control of the League under Democratic Demosthenes' direction. Alexander dispatched his troops to the south as soon as he launched the independence movement and urged the people there to recognise his authority. By the end of 336, the Corinthian League's towns had made peace with the Greek nations, but Athens rejected this and instead deployed a powerful force to battle the Persian state. But in 335, Alexander routed the Thracian tribe and established Macedonia's northern boundary before preparing for war.

Alexander's Wars and Victories

When Alexander learned that Thebes, the capital city of Greece, had expelled the Macedonian army from its castle as his northern war was concluding, he shifted his army south out of concern for the uprising of other towns. Perenian, Alexander's commander, travelled toward Asia during all of these incidents. Alexander and his army arrived at Thebes in such a fashion that the local military was not even given a chance to defend themselves.

When Athens and other Greek towns decided to sign a contract with the Macedonian state, Alexander realised that his anxieties about the destruction of Thebes would also apply to other states. Alexander set sail for the Asian mission in 334 and landed at Troy the following spring. Near the Granius River, Alexander ran upon the Persian king Darius III's army and severely routed them. Alexander and his army crossed the southern coast of Asia Minor into Gordium by the previous year's fall, only stopping there for the winter to rest.

The armies of Alexander and Darius once more engaged in combat in the summer of 333. Despite having a more significant force, Alexander once more won a lopsided victory, captured Darius, and proclaimed himself king of Persia. The conquest of Egypt was Alexander's next objective, and after besieging Gaza, he quickly took Egypt. He founded Alexandria in 331 and turned it into a hub for Greek trade and culture. Following it, Alexander won the Battle of Gaugamela against Persia. Alexander became the king of Babylon, Asia, and the four corners of the globe after the Persian army was routed. The region of Eastern Iran was Alexander's next objective when he established the Macedonian colony and conquered 327 forts in Arimazes. He married Roxana, the prince's daughter, after seizing Oxiartes.

India and Alexander

Despite defeating Porus' army in India in 328, Alexander was deeply moved by Porus's might and restored him to the throne. Alexander attempted to march east of the Indus, but his troops resisted and requested to be sent back. Alexander led his army north to the Persian Gulf in 325 when he had recovered. During this period, many people became sick, some got hurt, and some even passed away. He considered combining the wise men of Persia and Macedonia to create a governing elite to retain his power and influence. He married several Macedonians to Persian princesses during this period in Susa.

Alexander discharged many Macedonian troops by adding 10,000 Persian warriors to his army. As a result, a sizable portion of the military turned against him and refused to accept Persian culture. Then, Alexander executed 13 Persian army heroes to appease the Macedonian soldiers' rage. Thus, the Susa event, intended to improve ties between Persia and Macedonia, could not be a success.

Alexander: Death

Alexander, who had taken Rome and Carthage, died from malaria in Babylon. Alexander passed away on June 13, 323, at just 32. A son was born to his wife Rokjana a few months after passing. His empire collapsed after his death, and the affected nations began contending for dominance over one another. Alexander's dominion suffered due to the East and the Greeks coordinating their cultures.

Next TopicBritney Spears

Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now


Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Trending Technologies

B.Tech / MCA