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What is the Full Form of ANC

ANC: Absolute Neutrophil Count

ANC stands for Absolute Neutrophil Count. The primary function of white blood cells, a part of the immune system, is to protect the body from infection. They are separated into various cells based on how they are supposed to work. Neutrophils are the most prevalent and crucial type of white blood cell for combating infections. As they defend the body against infection by eradicating bacteria, fungi, and foreign particles, neutrophils play a critical role in immunity. Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) is a routine blood test that counts all neutrophils in a blood sample to assess immune function and the possibility of an acute infection in a patient. In the care of individuals with weakened immune systems, ANC is essential.

ANC Full Form

Blood Test For ANC?

A typical complete blood count (CBC) test can detect ANC. Red blood cells, white blood cells, & platelets are counted as part of a routine blood test known as CBC. In general, leukemia, various infections, and infections are all monitored with ANC. In addition, ANC is the measure that determines how likely it is for immunocompromised people, such as cancer patients taking chemotherapy, to develop opportunistic infections.

How Is ANC Determined?

A healthy individual's usual range for ANC is between 2,500 and 7,000. ANC is not directly quantified. Instead, it is calculated by dividing the total number of white blood cells (WBC) by the proportion of neutrophils in a blood sample. When calculating ANC, a blood sample's overall white blood cell count, neutrophil percentage, and band cell percentage are all considered.

An Illustration Of ANC Calculation

The patient has a 10,000 WBC overall count. The patient has a neutrophil differential count of 50%, indicating that neutrophils make up half of all white blood cells.

To calculate ANC, multiply the differential WBC count's neutrophil percentage by the total WBC count. A neutrophil proportion of 50% and a total WBC count of 10,000 results in an ANC of 5,000. (10,000 x 0.50 = 5,000)

  • ANC calculations are currently automated.
  • Modern laboratory equipment can calculate the quantity of each type of white blood cell & test the ANC automatically.
  • Previously, using a microscope, lab staff manually counted the various cells.
  • The results are interpreted following the detection of ANC in a blood sample.
  • The outcomes of ANC testing are categorized into low, high, & normal values.

What Does A High ANC Level Mean?

  1. An increase in neutrophil count, which is the cause of neutrophilia, is indicated by high ANC levels. When the ANC is greater than 7,500, neutrophilia is identified. An elevated neutrophil count can result from a variety of issues.
  2. Blood problems, stress, typical infections, inflammation, or smoking are causes of neutrophilia.
  3. Numerous medical experts believe that a rise in the neutrophil count is the body's response to an external or internal stimulus.
  4. Weakness, light-headedness, recurrent infections, painful joints, and a body temperature over 38 degrees Celsius are all signs of neutrophilia (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit).
  5. Neutrophilia is a symptom of a deeper issue. As a result, there is no treatment, and the patient's prognosis is determined by the underlying illness. Individuals can, however, take precautions to avoid neutrophilia. These consist of stopping smoking, controlling stress, and keeping a healthy weight.
  6. Neutrophil patients are recommended to speak with medical professionals about their symptoms.

What Does A low ANC Indicate?

  1. A reduction in neutrophil count, or neutropenia, is indicated by low ANC levels.
  2. A dangerous disease called neutropenia makes a patient more susceptible to infection. As a result, the risk of infection increases with decreasing ANC.
  3. In cases where the ANC is less than 1,500, doctors determine that the patient has neutropenia.
  4. Neutropenia is a fairly common side effect of chemotherapy for cancer patients and is primarily brought on by infection. Its causes include autoimmune diseases like Crohn's disease and lupus, infections like hepatitis, tuberculosis, sepsis, certain medicines, cancer, blood problems, and vitamin deficiencies such as vitamin B12.
  5. The minor signs of neutropenia are fever, sores, swelling, & recurrent infections.
  6. In certain situations of neutropenia, no therapy is necessary because the body's natural defenses may treat the condition.
  7. To treat underlying infections & increase the production of white blood cells, doctors may prescribe medicines.
  8. Feverish neutropenia is a dangerous disorder that needs to be treated. In this instance, the patient gets admitted after receiving intravenous antibiotics.

Uses Of ANC In Therapy And Diagnostics

An important measurement used to treat cancer patients is ANC. Due to treatment, these patients are at significant risk of developing neutropenia. They are, therefore, more likely to get acute opportunistic infections. Patients with leukemia are more likely to experience neutropenia because the disease damages the bone marrow, which lowers neutrophil production.


A white blood cell count's total is made up of 50 to 70 percent neutrophils. They are essential for immunity and guarding the body against bacterial infections. The body's neutrophil count can change depending on several variables. These include illnesses brought on by genetic defects, medications, injuries, and stress. Neutrophil and neutropenia are caused by fluctuations in the total and absolute neutrophil count (ANC). In treating and diagnosing many illnesses, the use of ANC in blood testing is obvious. Furthermore, neutropenia, which impacts immune function, is partly understood thanks to ANC. In patients with impaired immune systems, neutropenia poses a life-threatening concern.

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