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Basic Counting Principles

Sum Rule Principle: Assume some event E can occur in m ways and a second event F can occur in n ways, and suppose both events cannot occur simultaneously. Then E or F can occur in m + n ways.

In general, if there are n events and no two events occurs in same time then the event can occur in n1+n2..........n ways.

Example: If 8 male processor and 5 female processor teaching DMS then the student can choose professor in 8+5=13 ways.

Product Rule Principle: Suppose there is an event E which can occur in m ways and, independent of this event, there is a second event F which can occur in n ways. Then combinations of E and F can occur in mn ways.

In general, if there are n events occurring independently then all events can occur in the order indicated as n1 x n2 x n3.........n ways.

Example: In class, there are 4 boys and 10 girls if a boy and a girl have to be chosen for the class monitor, the students can choose class monitor in 4 x 10 = 40 ways.

Mathematical Functions:

Factorial Function: The product of the first n natural number is called factorial n. It is denoted by n!, read "n Factorial."

The Factorial n can also be written as

Example1: Find the value of 5!


5! = 5 x (5-1) (5-2) (5-3) (5-4)
   = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120

Example2: Find the value of Counting Principles

Solution: Counting Principles =Counting Principles= 10 x 9=90

Binomial Coefficients: Binomial Coefficient is represented by nCr where r and n are positive integer with r ≤ n is defined as follows:

Counting Principles

Example: 8C2 =Counting Principles=Counting Principles= 28.

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