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What is the Full Form of BOT

BOT: Build-Operate-Transfer

BOT stands for Build Operate Transfer. Build-operate-transfer (BOT) is a project delivery method where a private organisation receives financial assistance from the government sector (or even sometimes from the private sector but only at specific times) to fund, style, establish, own, and conduct business in a facility specified in the agreement period.

This type of project delivery method is typically used for large-scale infrastructure investments. For a predetermined amount of time, the private organization will have the authority to run it. This enables the project's promoter to repay its investment as well as operating and maintenance costs. Big projects, mainly infrastructure ones created through public-private partnerships, are financed using a build-operate-transfer (BOT) contract model.

BOT Full Form

The first contract of the project's design and construction to a private company is done by a public organization, like municipal authorities, which is referred to as the BOT plan. Control over the project is given back to the general organisation after a predetermined period, usually two or three generations. In a build-operate-transfer (BOT) agreement, a third party, typically the government, gives a private business a permit to finance, develop, and manage a project for a duration of almost 20 to 30 years to make a profit. The project is then given back to the government agency that initially gave the concession after that period.

BOT is widely used in the following nations: Thailand, Turkey, Taiwan, Bahrain, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Israel, India, Iran, Croatia, Japan, China, Vietnam, Malaysia, Philippines, Egypt, Myanmar, and some of the states of America such as California, Florida, Indiana, Texas, and Virginia. However, the phrase "build-own-operate-transfer" is used in certain nations, including Nepal, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand (BOOT). The first BOT was designed for the China Hotel, which was constructed in 1979 by the Hopewell Holdings Ltd. company listed in Hong Kong, which Sir Gordon Wu did.

How Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Contracts Work?

An organisation-typically, an administration licenses a private corporation to finance, construct, and manage a project under that build-operate-transfer (BOT) agreement. In order to recover its capital, the corporation runs the program for a while (usually 20 or 30 years), after which it hands back authority to the public organization. BOT projects are often significant, brand-new construction developments that would typically be entirely funded, constructed, and managed by the government.

A power station in the Philippines, a drainage treatment centre in China, and a motorway in Pakistan are a few examples. BOT contractors are typically special-purpose businesses created especially for a particular project. Revenues often originate from a single supplier, an offtake client with a signed contract; even during the duration of the project, the contractor is running the project which has been created. This could be a state- or government-owned company. Any BOT project may involve some or all of the intended stakeholders:

  • The host nation: Usually, the administration is the one to start an infrastructure plan and determines whether the BOT model would work for the project's requirements. The political and financial environment are additional significant determinants of this choice. The government typically contributes to the project in some way (land provision, altered regulations, etc.).
  • The concessionaire: These are the project sponsors, also known as the concessionaires, who work to develop a particular motive unit that provides the money during the project.
  • Banks that give loans: A large portion of corporate debt is used to finance most BOT projects. The bank will be required to fund the project on a "non-recourse" premise, which means that it will only have access to the particular purpose corporation and all of its belongings to collect its losses.
  • Other lending institutions: The special purpose company might have additional financiers, including local or national banks.
  • Project contract parties include: The particular purpose corporation will outsource a third party to carry out its responsibilities under the contractual arrangement because it has a small workforce. Furthermore, it must guarantee that it has efficient supply agreements in place for the demand of raw materials and further materials required for the project.

A BOT project is typically completely new or greenfield in nature and utilised to construct a standalone asset rather than a complete network (even if remodelling might be necessary). The project business or operator in a BOT project typically receives its money from an amount charged to the company or administration instead of tariffs levied against users. Concessions refer to a variety of new construction projects, including highway projects, which share many characteristics with BOTs.

The economical theory behind the BOT

The benefits and drawbacks of integrating the construction and operation phases of infrastructure projects have been examined by various authors in political theory. When the various steps of the project are consolidated under one private contractor, Oliver Hart (2003) specifically employed the inadequate contracting approach to determine whether incentives to undertake non-contractible investments are lower or more significant.

According to Hart (2003), there are more excellent reasons to undertake cost-cutting investments when services are combined than when they are unbundled. Bundling or opening up relies on the specifics of the project since occasionally the motivations to make cost-saving investments may be overwhelming because they result in excessively large quality decreases. The work of Hart (2003) has been expanded in a variety of ways. For instance, Hoppe and Schmitz (2013, 2021) examine the consequences of combining for developing inventions, while Bennett and Iossa (2006) and Martimort & Pouyet (2008) research the relationship between bundling and ownership rights.

Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) Contract Modifications

There are numerous modifications to the fundamental BOT model. Build-own-operate-transfer (BOOT) agreements give the contractor ownership of the project for the duration of the agreement. During the project term, the administration acquires the project from the contractor through build-lease-transfer (BLT) contracts and assumes the project's management. In some forms, the contractor both designs and constructs the project. A design-build-operate-transfer (DBOT) agreement is one illustration.

What Constitutes a BOT Contract's Basic Structure?

There are three separate phases that make up a BOT:

Build: A private business accepts to assist the government in building a public infrastructure plan.

Operate: It then goes on to manage and run the infrastructure for a predetermined amount of time, after which it must recover its investment and start to make money.

Transfer: Following the granted time, the business returns ownership to the government agency.


  • An advantage of this process is that the Government involves Private firms, which are more organised and have a lot of types of equipment. By using the greatest tools, the private sector also improves both quality and effectiveness.
  • With the help of performance-based agreements and output-oriented goals, BOT gives businesses a method and opportunities to increase productivity.
  • The projects are executed at the cheapest cost possible because they are fully competitively bid.
  • The private sector shares in the project's dangers.


  • The biggest risk in the process is the "Cost" The equity portion of something like the financing has a profit element that is greater than the cost of the debt. This is the cost associated with shifting the danger to corporate companies.
  • A BOT financing agreement may need a significant amount of money and time upfront because it includes many different parties and calls for a convoluted institutional and legal framework. The BOT might not be appropriate for modest projects in that case.
  • The institutional capability required to guarantee that the pay and benefits of BOT are achieved, including the creation and enforcement of honest and fair assessment & procurement processes as well as the resolution of possible conflicts during implementation, may take a while to create.
  • It is thought that a sizable portion of the non-performing underlying assets of Indian public sector banks consists of loans for infrastructure projects.
  • In every PPP, companies take advantage of any chance to renegotiate contracts by claiming factors like decreased revenue or rising costs, which has become the standard in India. And a greater portion of public resources was wasted as a result of frequent tough negotiations.

Bot Alternatives

There is often no strong motivation for quick project completion or to provide a product at an affordable price due to the size of the private sector investment and type of arrangement. This kind of private sector involvement is also referred to as design-build. The BOT system and its variations' pros and cons are contrasted below for you, the end consumer, or the government organisation.

For several kinds of PPP (public-private partnership) works, for which the principal contractor is assigned to design and construct the works, modified variants of the "turnkey" procurement and BOT "build-operate-transfer" model are available. Contrasting this with the standard acquisition process (the build-design model), in which the client first hires consultants to create the progress before hiring a contractor to build the projects.

One of the important factors in choosing the highest offer is the set fee, rate, or overall cost for the private contractor to construct and design a facility. Risks associated with the phases of planning and construction are assumed by the contractor.

In a design-build contract, turnkey procurement entails that the creative team would act as the owner's spokesperson to ascertain the unique requirements of the user groups, consult with the distributors to choose the best choices and prices, and counsel the owner on the most sensible options, plan and construct the areas to adapt the project's function; Coordination of expenditures and delivery schedules; construction of infrastructure; facilitation of staff training for equipment operation; and outlining of equipment care and maintenance

The contractor is accountable for running and maintaining the final facility and designing and building the works according to the employer's specifications. The contractor is known as the "concession" and runs the facility over the decades-long maintenance and operational period. They also receive income from operations during this time. However, the building itself is still the employer's asset.

A separate contractor is hired to create and construct a project before operating it for a specified length of time under a DBO design-build-operate contract. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are a classic example of this kind of contract. In a PPP, a public client (such as a ministry or public agency) contracts with a private firm to plan, construct, and ultimately administer the project while the client pays for it and keeps ownership.

DBFO, or design-build-finance-operate, likewise gives responsibilities for design, construction, financing, and operation to a private organization. When there is a massive demand for a system right now, investors will pour money into any project that grabs the prizes, such as establishing a new runway in a big city and funding your rival project may be simple.BLT, or build-lease-transfer, is a project financing method with which the public sector participant hires the project from the constructor and assumes management responsibility.

An approach to purchasing infrastructure which already stands but isn't performing to par is called ROT, or renovate-operate-transfer. As you are aware, maintenance can be expensive when necessary systems are not working effectively or quickly. Public-private partnerships among both governmental bodies and private contractors that are capable to provide remodeling services and continue operating the project management that after repair work has been made can be used to finance an out-of-date facility or accommodation (whatever government entity such as telephone lines, etc.) that needs costly repairs.

What Sets the PPP Apart from the BOT?

A public-private partnership (PPP) happens when a private organisation assumes control over finances and manages significant government projects like parks, hospitals, and public transit systems. A BOT contract is merely one of many possible PPP contracts.

BOT contracts, in general, can make a great deal of sense. Theoretically, they let governments shift the expense and risk of significant infrastructure works to a specialised private organisation, which may profit significantly from them if they are successful before returning them. It seems to be a win-win situation. In developing economies, BOT contracts are more common, assisting capital local authorities to finance significant, intricate public works projects which they might never otherwise be capable of managing and paying.

Significant projects include many risks, and the BOT's financial estimates may be low or high. BOT is being widely used by many governments and countries to developing countries and it works with the amazing contributions between the government as well as private sectors. Like any other service, it also has numerous cons but is necessary to work.

What exactly does "public-private partnership" mean?

A public-private partnership (PPP) is an agreement between both the government and the private industry for the delivery of public goods and services. Large-scale government projects like highways, bridges, or hospitals can be accomplished with private investment thanks to public-private partnerships.

In this relationship, the private industry organisation makes assets for a predetermined time. When private industry technology and creativity are combined with public sector motivations to finish projects on schedule and within budget, these collaborations are successful.

PPP does not constitute privatisation because it entails the government's complete retaining of accountability for delivering the services. The division of danger between the public institution and the private industry is clearly defined.

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