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Gautam Buddha, also known as Siddhartha Gotama, Siddhartha Gautama, The Buddha, and many other names, was a South Asian monk and religious instructor. He lived in the second part of the first millennium BCE. Buddha was the founder of Buddhism and hence is highly respected by Buddhists. He is regarded among Buddhists as a fully conscious person who helped their ancestors see the way to heaven. His main aim was to make people learn to avoid desire and suffering. The Buddha is believed to have attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya while he was living a life of begging, penance and meditation. The Buddha journeyed over the lower Gangetic plain, educating and establishing a monastic order. Since then, the Lord Buddha has been honoured by many cultures and people throughout Asia.

Historians are wary of making unquestionable statements concerning the Buddha's facts of history. Siddhartha is said to have died in 833 BCE, as per the Kalachakra faith's Ka-tan time calculation technique.

The Buddhist society collected his lessons in the Vinaya Pitaka (a scripture) many years after the Buddha's funeral. Future generations added works like logical agreements known as Abhidharma.

Early Life

The Buddhist culture considers Lumbini (in modern-day Nepal), and Kapilavastu (currently in India), to be the Buddha's birthplace & childhood home, accordingly. The actual location of historic Kapilavastu is unclear. It might be Piprahwa, Uttar Pradesh, in modern-day India, or Tilaurakot, Nepal. These locations belong to the Sakya region and are just 24 km separated in the distance.

According to mythology, Crown princess Maya dreamed that a white elephant with six white teeth entered her right side on the night Buddha was created, and then 10 months later, Buddha was delivered. When his mother, Queen Maya, got pregnant, she left Kapilavastu for her father's country to conceive a child, as was the Shakya ritual.

The early Buddhist writings give relatively limited data on Siddhartha Gautama's birth and adulthood. Buddha's father was elected head of the Shakya tribe, whose capital was Kapilavastu. His surname was Gautama. Throughout the Buddha's entire life, the rising Empire of Kosala kept it captured.

The same day as the Buddha's birth is known as Vesak in Theravada nations. In Nepal, Bangladesh, and India, Buddha's anniversary is known as Buddha Purnima since people believe he was born on a full moon night. During birth rituals, the hermit seer Asita travelled from his hill home and announced that this child would become a great king or a great holy man. Suddhodana (Buddha's father) arranged a naming ceremony on the fifth day after his birth and gathered 8 Brahman masters to predict his son's future. All of them issued similar conclusions.

Buddhism's Enlightenment

According to Majjhima Nikaya 4, Buddha lived in distant jungle thickets throughout his years of religious struggle, then had to conquer his phobia of staying in the jungles. According to the Nikaya texts, the monk Gautama studied yoga concentration with two gurus.


By several religious texts, Siddhartha Gautama pursued traditional tactics after leaving his yoga gurus. The early literature mentions ascetic tactics like extremely few meals, various types of respiration, and severe mental control that Buddha followed. According to the records, he got so weak during that time, and his bones could be seen through his skin.

His abandonment of ascetic is reported to have caused his five friends to leave him because they thought he had quit his path and become undisciplined. Gautama recalled a former meditation session he had as a youngster while seated below a tree as his father was working.

According to multiple stories from Pali Canon, the Siddhartha sat underneath the bodhi tree for a week, enjoying the happiness of joy and true freedom. While residing beside the Riverbank Natarajan, he continued to focus and examine different elements of the Dharma, including Reliant Beginnings, the Five Spiritual Abilities, and Suffering, according to the Pali teachings.

Sangha's Formation

Following his awakening, Siddhartha debated whether or not to impart the 'Teachings' to others. He was worried that people would be so overtaken by ignorance, selfishness, and hate that they'd be unable to see the meaningful road of their life. The Buddha wanted to visit his previous instructors, Alara Kalama & Udaka Ramaputta, to share with them his thoughts after opting to educate. Although they've already passed, he chose to see his five former friends.


Several traditions, including the Mahvastu, the Mahkhandhaka of the Theravada Vinaya, and the Catusparisat-stra, state that the Siddhartha addressed them in his 2nd speech, on the character trait of not-self, on this occasion. Following this second speech, the four partners' ascetics were elevated to the rank of an arahant.

Theravada Vinaya claims that the Siddhartha Gautama stopped at the Gayasiaa hill close to Gaya and gave his 3rd speech, which is all about fire, in which he explained that aspirations fuel everything in the universe and that only those who adhere to the path to enlightenment can achieve liberation.

The Buddha gave his group of approximately 60 awoken monks the instructions to go out and educate others and appoint new members for the group's profit and welfare at the end of the rainy season.

The Sangha's Expansion

The Buddha is also said to have travelled in the Alluvial Plains, which is now in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, as well as southern Nepal, for the leftover 40 or 45 years of life, instructing a wide group of people: from nobles to servants, monks and house owners, murderers like Angulimala, and cannibals like Alavaka.

Even though Buddha's language is unidentified, he probably spoke from one or more of several closely similar Mid-Indo-Aryan languages, Pali being one of them.

So, when he created the Sangha (a group), the very first vipassana (a kind of meditation) was spent in Varanasi. As per Pali sources, immediately after the creation of the Sangha, the Buddha came to Rajagaha, the capital of Magadha, and met with King Bimbisara.

The Bhikkhuni (Nuns) Order Establishment

A further significant aspect of the Buddha's society's expansion was the establishment of a rival organization of female monastics. Based on numerous primary stories evaluated by Anlayo, the Siddhartha first rejected Mahprajpati Gautami, Buddha's stepmother, after she, with other women, desired membership.

As per Anlayo, one debate Ananda makes to encourage the Buddha is that women have the same capabilities to attain all levels of awareness as males.

Anlayo further mentions that several scriptures show that the Buddha's unwillingness to ordain women was due to the risk that the life of travelling and sramana (one who labours) created for women would not be allowed by male members.

Later Years of Life

As per J.S. Strong, after the first twenty years of his career as a teacher, the Buddha appears to have gradually established at Sravasti, the capital of the Province of Kosala, where he spent most of his later life.

When the Sangha increased in number, the use of a uniform code of spiritual norms emerged, and the Buddha appears to have devised a set of laws for the Sangha. The Buddha's renown spread, and he has been called to key royal events such as the opening of the Shakyans' new conference hall and Prince Bodhi's opening of the latest mansion. According to the early sources, the Buddha met a few of these men and criticized their ideas. Six such groups are mentioned in the Samaaphala Sutta.

Devadatta's division was among the most disturbing episodes during Buddha's old age. According to early traditions, the Buddha's cousin, Devadatta, intended to take command of the organization before leaving the Sangha with many Buddhist monks to create a competing group. Almost at the same period as Devadatta's division, Ajatashatru's Empire of Magadha was at war with Kosala, governed by an old monarch Pasenadi.



Origins of Ancient Lessons

Comparing the earliest copies of the Pali Language with other writings, such as the existing sections of Sarvastivada, Mulasarvastivada, Mahisasaka, Dharmaguptaka, and the Chinese Agamas, is one technique of gathering information about Buddhism's ancient core.

The trustworthiness of these texts and the capability of extracting a core of ancient lessons are debatable.


The Buddha's lessons on Karma and Reincarnation evolved from pre-Buddhist concepts discovered in Jain and Brahmins literature, such as the Brihadaranyaka Sutra.

The Buddha is believed to be studying beneath two identified instructors, Alara Kalama & Udaka Ramaputta. These are all monks, as per Alexander Wynne, who instructed ideas and practises comparable to those in the Upanishads.

Buddhism still practises tree devotion nowadays, notably in the reverence of Bodhi trees. Similarly, yakkas and nagas play key roles in Buddhist religious rites and mythology.

Early Buddhist Writings

Several concepts and practices that the historical Buddha may have impacted are presented in the Ancient Buddhist Texts. Each of these ideas, as per N. Ross Real, are maintained by the Theravada Pali scriptures and the Mahasamghika school's Ideas.

According to Richard Salomon, the beliefs recorded in the Gandharan Writings are compatible with non-Mahayana Buddhism, which persists now in the Theravada school of Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia.

Criticisms on Brahmins

The Brahman class considered the Vedic to be eternally disclosed writings. The Buddha, on the other side, rejected the scriptures' divine power and significance. The Buddha also criticized Brahman's beliefs of higher origin and believed that various classes and families were fundamentally clean or unclean, honourable or ignoble.

The early Buddhist writings portray the Buddha's philosophy as centred on comprehending the nature of dukkha, which is viewed as life's primary dilemma.

The 4 facts paradigm seems to be founded on a connection with Indian medical diagnosis, according to Bhikkhu Analayo, and this similarity is clearly emphasized in various early Buddhist writings.

The perpetual process of passing and rebirth because of one's karma, as per the Buddha, is simply dukkha, and the ultimate Spiritual aim should be freedom from this circle.

Physical Appearance

The Buddha is characterized in early accounts as compared to other Buddhist monks. Several discourses relate to how he chopped off his hair and beard while rejecting the world. A Brahman describes the Buddha as a shaven or hairless man in Digha Nikaya 3. When King Ajatashatru approached the Sangha, he was unable to recognize who among the monks was the Buddha and had to ask his minister to show him out. In adulthood, the Buddha is also characterized as attractive and with a clear face. But, in old age, he is characterized as having a slumped frame with weak and shrivelled limbs.

As per Anlayo, since many special visual markings appeared in Buddhist literature, they were considered unnoticeable to the average person and needed special training to identify.


Buddha in Various Religions


This Hindu confluence arose following the Buddha's era, around 500-200 BCE and around 300 CE, due to the triumph of Buddhism and Jainism. Several Hindus believe that Buddha was a Hindu, claiming the idea that the Buddha was the ninth form of Vishnu as evidence.

The Teachings of Buddha deny the sovereignty of the Vedas and the principles of Brahman-Atman. The Buddha was accepted as an avatar around the same period that Hindus flourished and Buddhism began to fall in India.


Islamic saint or prophet Dhu al-Kifl has been often identified as Gautama Buddha. The definition of Dhu al-Kifl is still questioned; however, one interpretation holds that it might indicate Kapil/Kifl is the Arabic equivalent of Kapilavastu, the place where the Buddha lived for 30 years.

As per this interpretation, the sources described in these passages are as follows: Sinai is where Moses got knowledge; Mecca is where Muhammad got an acknowledgement. And the olive tree is where Jesus got realization. Under this circumstance, Siddhartha Gautama got knowledge from the surviving fig tree.

As per Sunni historian Tabari, Buddhist statues were imported from Afghanistan to Baghdad throughout the 9th century. These idols were sold in Buddhist temples near a mosque in Bukhara, although he did not elaborate on Buddha's involvement.


The Buddha inspired the Christian Saint Josaphat. The title is derived from the Sanskrit word Bodhisattva, the Arabic word Bdhasaf and the Georgian word Iodasaph. Josaphat was featured in older versions of the Roman Martyrology but not in the Roman Prayer book or the ritual calendar of the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Original Sources

There have been no written documents concerning Buddha during his lifetime or the next century. However, various Edicts of Ashoka 269-232 BCE reference the Buddha and Buddhism beginning in the middle of the third century BCE.

Sakyamuni is also referenced in Bharhut allowances relating to his lighting and the Bodhi tree, with the phrase Bhagavato Sakamunino Bodhi.

Hinüber offers a writing date for such work no later than 350-320 BCE, permitting a genuine historical recollection of incidents 60 years previously if the Short Timeline for the Buddha's reign is adopted.

Characteristics of historical depiction

The Pali Nikayas' oldest biographical content concentrates on the Buddha's existence as a Ramaa, his journey to awakening under several instructors such as Alara Kalama, and his 45-year teaching career. The Buddha is not represented as having wisdom or as an everlasting superior entity in the nikyas and games. Concepts of the Buddha's knowledge, as per Bhikkhu Analayo, appear much later, inside the Mahayana scriptures and subsequent Pali interpretations or works such as the Mahvastu.

In such classic biography, the Buddha is frequently portrayed as a superior and pure personality free of the ordinary world. Buddha was commonly mentioned as extraordinary, along with the 32 main and Eighty little signs of a brilliant man and the concept that Buddha might live for any age if desired.

These manuscripts offer descriptions of historical India's tradition and lifestyle that Jain scriptures can substantiate.

Earlier Existences


Iconic histories such as the Pali Buddhavasa and the Sanskrit Jtakaml portray the Buddha's existence as extending centuries of forms before his final incarnation as Gautama.

In addition to embedding the pre-Buddhist period with a rich karmic background, the Jatakas describe the Bodhisattva's route to Buddhahood. One of the most well-known of such legends is his visit with Dipankara Buddha, who predicts his eventual Enlightened beings.

Derivation of Dependence

The Buddha's lesson on Reliant Beginnings describes the procedure of the formation of dukkha in great depth. This fundamental idea is built upon within various previous works with a list of situations that are considered to be provisionally reliant.

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