Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

Difference between Civil Law and Criminal Law

There are many different laws for the protection of people across the world. Different nations have different laws regarding various things like marriage, property, ownership, etc.

These laws help in protecting the people of the country. Over some time, there have been certain variations in laws regarding women's safety and other related subjects. It has become important to know such laws. Today we will be discussing two different kinds of laws, i.e., civil law and criminal law. So, let us begin by knowing their basic meaning.

Civil Law

Civil Law is defined as the law designed to help the citizens in their personal affairs like property, marriage, ownership, etc. Any personal affair apart from crime comes under civil law. Civil law majorly deals with four kinds of cases. These cases are contracts, property, harm to the property or its owner, and family relations. Examples of civil law include breach of a contract, property damage, or defamation of a person.

Difference between Civil Law and Criminal Law

Criminal Law

Criminal Law is defined as the law that is used to give punishment to criminals. The criminals are given punishment according to the Indian Penal Code. Criminal law is an important law as it helps in solving disputes and protects the citizens from any physical harm. Criminal law focuses on four major subjects, i.e., financial crime, property crime, personal crime, and statutory crime. Now, you must be wondering as to what is the difference between civil law and criminal law? There are certain points of contrast between them.

S.NO. CIVIL LAW CRIMINAL LAW
1. Civil law is defined as the law required to help citizens in their personal affairs like property, ownership, or marriage. On the other hand, criminal law is defined as the law used to give punishment to the people who have offended the law or committed a particular crime.
2. Civil law deals with contracts, property, physical injury, and family relation cases. Criminal law deals with financial, property, personal and statutory crime.
3. It is also called general law, as it is required to solve disputes between organizations or individuals. It is also called general law, as it is required to solve disputes between organizations or individuals.
4. Civil law is filed by the citizens who have some kind of problem. Civil law is also called as plaintiff. On the other hand, criminal law is filed by the government.
5. The party that has some kind of problem files the case in tribunal or court. The party who has suffered has to file a complaint in the police station first. The police investigate the crime, and if the person is found guilty, then a case is filed in the court of law.
6. Civil law aims at protecting the citizens and providing them with compensation. Criminal law aims at maintaining law and order in the country.
7. The wrongdoer is given punishment by the court of law along with the party who has suffered. The person who has committed the crime is sued and prosecuted in the court of law.
8. In civil law, only compensation is provided to the party. No punishment is given to the wrongdoer. On the other hand, the accused is given punishment based on the crime he/ she has committed.
9. The court of law passes the judgement declaring the compensation amount. The court of law can charge a large amount or put the accused in prison.
10. Personal affairs are handled in civil law. Societal affairs are handled in criminal law.

So, these are some of the basic points of contrast between civil law and criminal law. Well, apart from the differences, there are certain types of criminal law and civil law. So, let us discuss some of the types.

Types of Civil Law

  1. Contract: The disputes regarding the contracts happen when either party is unable to fulfill the terms and conditions of the contract. In such situations, the compensation amount is given by the party who has breached the contract.
  2. Property: The disputes regarding property happen when a property has been damaged by another person, or physical harm has been done to the owner.
  3. Family Relations: People who have family disputes like ownership, settlement, or divorce can take the help of civil law and settle their quarrels.
  4. Complaints against a City: One can file a complaint against the government or the city regarding a particular settlement. Once the case is filed, it is up to the court of law whether government or the city is liable to pay the compensation or not.

Types of Criminal Law

  1. Personal Crime: Personal crimes are the crime that causes physical or mental harm to another person. The crimes can be violent or homicidal. Examples of personal crimes include assault, domestic abuse, kidnapping, child abuse, etc.
  2. Property Crime: Property crimes include damaging the property. It can involve physical or mental harm to the property owner as well. Examples of property crimes include burglary, robbery, shoplifting, etc.
  3. Statutory Crime: The statutory crimes include the above-mentioned crimes along with the laws and rules provided by the government. Examples of statutory crimes include alcohol crime, drug-related crimes, traffic crimes, financial crimes, etc.
  4. Financial Crimes: Financial Crimes include fraud or theft done with an intention to have a financial gain. Examples of financial crimes include fraud, theft, blackmail, cyber-crime, etc.

So, these are some of the types of civil law and criminal law. It is important to note that both civil law and criminal law are required to maintain the law and order of the nation. Every country has different laws related to the citizen and criminals. Thus, both civil laws and criminal laws are essential for the smooth functioning of the nation.


Next TopicDifference Between




Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now

Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Preparation


Trending Technologies


B.Tech / MCA