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Composition vs. Inheritance React

One of the main design choices React developers must make is whether to employ composition or inheritance to create reusable components. Both composition and inheritance are effective methods for helping developers create intricate user interfaces, but they both have unique properties and trade-offs. We'll examine the distinctions between composition and inheritance in React in this article and explain when to pick one over the other.

Understanding Composition and Inheritance


Composition is a design philosophy that stresses integrating smaller, more specialized components to create complex components. It entails putting pieces together to form a stronger, more coherent whole. This is possible with React because of the idea of "props drilling," in which data is delivered down the component tree as props.

Take a "Card" component, which shows information, as an example. You may construct distinct components for each aspect and then combine them within the "Card" component rather than adding all the elements (such as the title, image, and description) at once. This strategy encourages reuse, maintainability and makes it simpler to handle separate components.


While a class (or component in React) can inherit attributes and actions from another class (or component), inheritance is an idea from object-oriented programming. The "class" syntax, which was often used in earlier versions of React, is used to extend components in React in order to implement inheritance. The methods and state of the superclass (parent component) are passed down to the subclass (child component).

For instance, you may make a "DerivedComponent" that extends the "BaseComponent" to inherit specific features from a "BaseComponent" that already has such functionalities. While inheritance might be advantageous in some circumstances, it can also result in intricate hierarchies and a close relationship between components, which makes the codebase more difficult to manage and comprehend.

Pros and Cons of Composition and Inheritance



  1. Promotes code reusability: Components can be easily reused in different contexts, enhancing the overall maintainability and scalability of the application.
  2. Flexibility: By composing smaller components, you have the flexibility to mix and match them in various ways to create complex UIs with different functionalities.
  3. Better separation of concerns: Composition encourages breaking down complex UIs into smaller, manageable parts, leading to a clearer separation of concerns.


  1. Prop drilling: Deeply nested components might require passing props through multiple levels, which can be tedious and lead to prop drilling issues.
  2. Learning curve: Developers new to composition might need some time to adjust to this design approach and understand how to effectively compose components.



  1. Code reuse through inheritance: Inheriting from a base component can allow you to reuse common functionalities and state across multiple components.
  2. Easy to grasp: Developers familiar with object-oriented programming find inheritance intuitive and easy to understand.


  1. Tight coupling: Inheritance can create tight coupling between parent and child components, making it challenging to modify or extend functionalities without affecting other parts of the application.
  2. Code duplication: As the application grows, inherited components might contain redundant code that could be better managed using composition.
  3. Hierarchical complexities: Deep inheritance hierarchies can become hard to manage, leading to the "diamond problem", where multiple inheritances leads to ambiguities.

When to Use Composition and Inheritance

1. Composition is preferred when:

You should create reusable, adaptable parts that are simple to integrate and construct.

A distinct separation of concerns and a manageable codebase are required.

You are a member of a team where many developers are in charge of various aspects of the program, and components must be simple to comprehend and modify.

2. Inheritance is preferred when:

You have a well-defined basic component that is shared by all components, encapsulating essential functions.

You are working on a small, uncomplicated application with minimal risk of complex coupling and a clear hierarchy.

Refactoring at this time is not practical because you are retaining a legacy codebase that heavily relies on inheritance.


In React programming, composition and inheritance are both useful techniques, both having advantages and disadvantages. When there is a clear need for shared functionality, inheritance can be helpful, but composition encourages code reuse, flexibility, and better separation of responsibilities.

Understanding the distinctions between composition and inheritance can help you, as a developer, make wise design decisions based on the unique requirements and complexity of your application. The maintainability, scalability, and readability of your React application may be considerably improved by finding the ideal balance between composition and inheritance.

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