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Difference between Compound and Mixture

A matter can be classified into element, compound and mixture based on its chemical composition. Let us see how a compound differs from a mixture!

Compound:

A compound is a pure substance made up of two or more different elements combined together in a fixed proportion, so you cannot change the amount of an element in a compound. The different elements of a compound are chemically combined by different types of chemical bonds such as:

  • Covalent bond: It is chemical bond in which atoms bond with each other by sharing electron pairs.
  • Ionic bond: It is a chemical bond in which atoms bond with each other by transferring the valence electrons from one atom to another atom.
  • Metallic bond: This type of chemical bond occurs due to the electrostatic attraction between conduction electrons and positively charged ions.

As, the components of a compound are chemically combined, they cannot be separated easily, their separation requires a chemical reaction. Furthermore, A compound has its own unique properties which are often different from the properties of its components. For example, iron sulphide, a compound made up of iron and sulphide, has distinct properties from both of its components: iron and sulphide. Other common examples of a compound include water, salt, carbon dioxide, sodium chloride etc.

Mixture:

A mixture is made up of two or more elements or substances mixed in any proportion or in a non-fixed ratio. It means, in a mixture, you can vary the amount of a substance or component of the mixture. For example, a mixture of iron and sulphur can be made up of 1 gram of iron and 1 gram of sulphur or 5 grams of iron and 5 grams of sulphur and so forth.

The different substances or components of a mixture are not chemically combined. So, the properties of a mixture are the sum of the properties of its components. Furthermore, as the components are not chemically combined, they can be easily separated from the mixture. For example, you can separate iron from the mixture of iron and sulphur using a magnet because magnet attracts iron not sulphur. Some common examples of mixture include sea water, air, sand and water, sugar and salt, etc.

Based on the above information some of the key differences between Compound and Mixture are as follows:

Compound Mixture
It is a pure substance made up of two or more elements combined in a fixed proportion. It is made up of two or more substances mixed in any proportion.
It is always homogenous. It can be homogenous or heterogeneous.
The constituents of a compound are present in a definite proportion. The constituents are present in a variable proportion.
A compound has its own unique properties which are different from the properties of its constituents. The properties of mixture are same as the properties of its ingredients.
The components of a compound can be separated by chemical of electro-chemical reactions. The components of a mixture can be separated by physical methods.
Compounds have a definite or fixed melting and boiling point. Compounds do not have a fixed melting of boiling point.
A compound is always a pure substance. A mixture is always an impure substance.
The constituents do not retain their chemical properties, so a new substance is formed. Constitutes retain their individual properties, so a mixture does not form a new substance.
Chemical reactions occur when a compound is formed. Chemical reactions are involved in the formation of a mixture.
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