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Modern economies do not differentiate between renewable and non-renewable materials, as it prefers to measure everything on monetary terms. So, if we talk about alternative fuels like coal, wood, oil, etc., the only difference between them as recognized by modern economics is their relative cost per equivalent unit. Eventually, the cheapest is the one to be preferred, although it would be irrational and uneconomical. As per Buddhism, the major difference between non-renewable fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas on the one hand and renewable fuels like wood and water power, on the other hand, cannot be overlooked. Non-renewable fuels must be used only if they are necessary and it should not be wasted, to use these resources carelessly is an act of violence.

Question 1: What is contrary to the Buddhist economic philosophy?

  1. prefer to use non-renewable resources excessively over renewable resources
  2. using renewable resources excessively over non-renewable resources
  3. spending more on expensive products than cheaper ones
  4. spending more on cheaper products than expensive ones

Answer: A

Question 2: In this passage, the author has given emphasis on the

  1. importance of renewable energy
  2. the difference between renewable and non-renewable materials
  3. difference between two economic philosophies
  4. importance of renewable energy

Answer: C

Question 3: The philosophy of which religion is discussed in this passage?

  1. Sikhism
  2. Hinduism
  3. Christian
  4. Buddhism

Answer: D

Question 4: How modern economics recognize the difference between renewable and non-renewable materials?

  1. relative cost per equivalent unit
  2. relative use per equivalent unit
  3. relative cost per annum
  4. relative cost per day

Answer: A

Question 5: As per the Buddhist economist's attitude the fuels like coal and oil must be used only if

  1. their availability is more
  2. alternative fuels are not available
  3. their price is low
  4. their price is high

Answer: B


Once or twice a week we went off the road and walk on a path through the forest. The floor of the forest was soft as it was covered with leaves and feathers. Although the road was covered with frost, we did not mind the hardness of the road as we were wearing shoes with nails in the soles and heels, nails bit on the frozen ruts. It is good to walk on the road wearing nailed boots. It was also lovely walking in the forest.

Question 1: In this passage, "frozen nuts" refers to

  1. path covered with leaves and feathers
  2. the roads covered with frost
  3. nails in the soles and heels
  4. the hardness of the road

Answer: B

Question 2: Why the floor of the forest was soft

  1. It was covered with snow
  2. It was covered with water
  3. It was covered with cotton
  4. It was covered with leaves and feathers

Answer: D

Question 3: We did not mind walking on the hard road because

  1. we liked walking on the hard road
  2. we were wearing nailed slippers
  3. it was good for health
  4. we were wearing nailed boots

Answer: D

Question 4: It was good to walk on

  1. frost wearing nailed boots
  2. road wearing nailed boots
  3. path covered with flowers
  4. none of the above

Answer: B

Question 5: We walked through the forest as

  1. it looks beautiful when covered with frost
  2. it was unaffected by the frost
  3. it was covered with leaves
  4. None of the above

Answer: B


Today perhaps the word 'polio' reminds you only the Sabin Oral Vaccine that protects children from this fatal disease. The scenario was different around fifty-five years ago. Polio mainly affects the brain and spinal cord and causes stiffening and weakening of muscles, crippling and paralysis. This is the reason why Rex is in a wheelchair today. When he was born, no one would have predicted that he would suffer from polio. He was the sixth child in a family of three pairs of brothers and sisters, with a huge 20 year age gap between the first and last. Although he was healthy at the time of birth, he was affected by polio.

Question 1: As per the passage, what the word 'polio' reminds?

  1. Paralysis
  2. Sabin oral vaccine
  3. Sabin oral tablets
  4. Deadly disease

Answer: B

Question 2: At the time of birth, Rex was

  1. weak
  2. very healthy
  3. overweight
  4. none of the above

Answer: B

Question 3: Rex was the sixth child in a family of

  1. six children
  2. seven children
  3. eight children
  4. five children

Answer: A

Question 4: Rex is a patient of

  1. tumor
  2. paralysis
  3. polio
  4. osteoporosis

Answer: C

Question 5: What is the age gap between the first and last child.

  1. 20 year
  2. 15 year
  3. 25 year
  4. 10 year

Answer: A


Small insects with a soft body like caterpillars, butterflies, earthworm, etc., often fall prey to birds and reptiles. These insects generally lack the means to actively defend themselves, i.e., they don't have jaws, claws, sharp teeth, etc. However, they have evolved other equally effective deterrents. For example, there is a species of caterpillar that lives at an altitude of over 2500 meters in the Himalayas. It uses color to inform the predators that they are not edible. If an inexperienced predator eats the caterpillar, it would probably vomit it soon. So, the predator refrains from attacking this species in the future. Although the caterpillar dies, it benefits the species, i.e., an example of a martyr among caterpillars.

Question 1: Predators like birds and reptiles prefer to eat

  1. Fresh, soft leaves
  2. soft-bodied insects
  3. soft-bodied animals
  4. flowers and fruits

Answer: B

Question 2: Experienced predators do not eat the Himalayan caterpillars as they

  1. are inedible
  2. have claws
  3. have stings
  4. are poisonous

Answer: A

Question 3: The Himalayan caterpillar uses color to

  1. attract the predators
  2. attack the predators
  3. reveal themselves
  4. to inform that they are indelible

Answer: D

Question 4: The caterpillars easily fall prey to predators like birds and reptiles because they

  1. are lazy
  2. are small in size
  3. cannot fly
  4. lack claws or jaws

Answer: D

Question 5: As per the passage, the caterpillar who dies is a martyr because

  1. it fights with predators
  2. its death benefits other caterpillars
  3. it can change its color
  4. None of the above

Answer: B


The growth and success of the electronics industry in Japan is its ability to organize production and marketing rather than research and analysis. The British are generally known for their inventions, but never seem able to exploit what they invent, e.g., there are plenty of examples like high-speed train, Sinclair scooter, Norton Motorcycle that shows this sad scenario. The Japanese were able to use their skills and strengths in the fields of marketing and development many years ago. Either their success was not understood in the West or was dismissed as they produced at low prices. Their products were sold as they were cheap copies of other people's ideas and developed and marketed by a dedicated workforce.

Question 1: As per the passage, the success of a country's industry depends upon

  1. research and analysis
  2. international cooperation
  3. cheap labor and low price
  4. dedicated workforce

Answer: D

Question 2: The sad scenario mentioned in this passage refers to

  1. the inability of the Japanese to invent new things like the British
  2. the inability of the British to learn from the Japanese
  3. the low popularity of British products
  4. the inability of the British to market their inventions

Answer: D

Question 3: High-speed train, Sinclair scooter, Norton Motorcycle are discussed in the context of

  1. Success of Japanese
  2. Failure of Japanese
  3. Failure of British inventions
  4. Success of British inventions

Answer: C

Question 4: According to the passage, prosperity in industry depends upon

  1. availability of raw material
  2. financial background
  3. invention ability
  4. production and marketing ability

Answer: D

Question 5: The passage has given emphasis on

  1. the role of marketing in industrial success
  2. the role of research and analysis in industry
  3. the business relations between Japan and Britain
  4. None of the above

Answer: A

Comprehension 2
Comprehension 4
Next TopicComprehension 4

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