Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

Crop Definition

A plant is said to as a crop if it can be widely farmed and harvested for either food or profit. A crop is what is produced as a result of extensive cultivation of similar plants in one location. Most plants are grown in hydroponic systems or through agriculture. Macroscopic fungi and marine macroalgae, some of which are raised in aquaculture, can be used as crops. Seaweed and mushrooms are two examples of the former. The vast majority of harvested crops are used as food or as livestock feed. Intense collection methods are frequently used to harvest specific crops from the wild. (e.g. ginseng, Yohimbe, and eucommia).

Crop Definition

Important non-food crops include industrial crops, horticulture, and floriculture. Plants utilized for other crops are considered horticulture crops (e.g. fruit trees). Instances of floriculture crops include bedding plants, seedlings, flowering gardens, and container plants, cut cultivated greens, & fresh flowers. Examples of industrial crops include apparel (fibre crops like cotton), biofuels (energy crops like Jatropha, algal fuel), & pharmaceuticals (medicinal plants).

Variety of Crops

Depending on the season they are grown in, the crops fall into one of the following categories:

Kharif Crops

  • Crops raised in the monsoon season are known as Kharif crops. For example, maize, millet, and cotton.
  • The seeds are seeded at the start of any season and harvested at the end.
  • Those crops need hot temperatures and lots of water to flourish properly.

Rabi Crops

  • Spring is the meaning of the name Rabi, which is an Arabic word.
  • Crops that are produced in the spring from winter cultivation are known as "rabi" crops.
  • Among the crops grown during Rabi are wheat, gramme, and mustard.

To create new crop types, many agricultural procedures are used. In order for the seeds of these crops to germinate and mature, a warm temperature is necessary. But for them to grow, a cold temperature is necessary.

Zaid Crops

  • These crops are raised between the seasons of Kharif and Rabi, or between the months of March and June.
  • These plants mature quickly.
  • Zaid crops include watermelon, pumpkin, cucumber, and bitter gourd.

Aspects Influencing the Production of Crops

The following are some of the elements influencing crop production:

Genetic or Internal Factors

Crop development and productivity are determined by its genetic makeup. Breeders modify the crops to produce a new hybrid variety to include the most desirable qualities. Characters that are desired include:

  • Youthful maturity
  • High yield potential
  • Resilience to salinity, flooding, and drought
  • Tolerance for illnesses and insects
  • Opposition to lodging
  • The grain's chemical make-up
  • Grain and straw quality

Each generation inherits these personalities.

Crop Definition

Environmental or External Factors

The outside variables include:

  • Climatic conditions
  • Edaphic elements
  • Biotic
  • Socio-economic
  • Climate variables

The following are some climate elements that impact agricultural production:

  • Precipitation
  • Temperature
  • Atmospheric moisture
  • Solar energy
  • Wind speed
  • Airborne gases
  • Edaphic elements

The soil's composition in which plants are cultivated affects how well they thrive. These are edaphic factors, and they consist of the following:

  • Soil temperature
  • Land air
  • Soil moisture
  • Soil mineral content
  • Soil organic content
  • Organisms in the soil
  • Ground reactions

Biotic Elements

Biotic variables, such as plants and animals, have an impact on agricultural yield. Even pests frequently have a negative effect on agricultural productivity.

Socioeconomic Elements

  • The quantity of cultivatable human resources.
  • The social climate's propensity for cultivation.
  • Correct crop selection.
  • Using human inventions to breed variations for better productivity or pest resistance.

Cash Crops

The cultivation of a crop for market sale in order to benefit from the sale is known as a cash crop. The majority of crops farmed today are cash crops, meaning they are grown with the intention of being sold on domestic and international markets. The majority of cash plants grown in underdeveloped countries are exported to industrialized countries for a higher price. The well-known cash crops are cotton, sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, and tea.

Crop Definition

Food Crops

The majority of crops grown are for human consumption or food crops. The country grows a wide variety of food crops.

  • Rice: Throughout much of the country, rice is the main crop grown for food. For healthy growth, the Kharif crop of rice needs high temperatures, copious amounts of precipitation, and high humidity. Rice is grown with irrigation in regions with lower rainfall.
  • Wheat: In the north and northwest of the nation, wheat is the most important cereal crop. For this Rabi crop, an annual rainfall of 50 to 75 cm is required.
  • Millets: Jowar, bajra, and ragi are among the significant millets grown in the nation. They are referred to as coarse grains and are incredibly nutritious. It flourishes where there is year-round precipitation.
  • Maize: The Kharif crop maize is utilized for food and pasture. Alluvial soil is ideal for its growth.
  • Pulses: The biggest consumer and producer of pulses worldwide is India. Pulses are able to live in arid environments. Leguminous crops like these help boost soil fertility because of their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen.

Crops are essential to the provision of food for the human population. The crops should therefore be grown using the appropriate farming methods and equipment.

Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now


Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Trending Technologies

B.Tech / MCA