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What is the full form of CRPC

CRPC: Code of Criminal Procedure

CRPC stands for Code of Criminal Procedure. The primary piece of lawmaking governing the implementation of existing criminal law in India is the Code of Criminal Procedure, sometimes also called the Criminal Procedure Code (CrPC). It was approved in 1973 and was applied on April 1 of the same year.

CRPC Full Form

It offers the tools necessary for conducting a criminal investigation, apprehending suspects, gathering evidence, determining a person's guilt or innocence, and determining the appropriate penalty for those found guilty. It also addresses public annoyance, crime prevention, and wife, kid, and parent upkeep.

The legislation currently contains 56 forms, 5 schedules, and 565 sections. There are 46 chapters between each of the divisions.


Following the Muslim-imposed law in mediaeval India, the Mohammedan Criminal Law became the norm. The Supreme Court was required to decide cases involving subjects of the Crown using British procedural law.

Following the 1857 Rebellion, the crown assumed control of India's administration. The British parliament approved the Indian Penal Code in 1861. The CrPC was initially established in 1882, and revised in 1898, after that in accordance with the 41st Law Commission report in 1973.

Categories of Offences under the Code

Cognizable and non-cognizable offences

According to the first schedule of the code, cognizable offences are those for which a policeman may make an arrest without a court-issued warrant. Whereas, the policeman cannot arrest in a non-cognizable offence without a warrant. Non-cognizable offences are typically viewed as being less severe than those that are cognizable. Section 154 of the Criminal Procedure Code governs crimes that are punishable by law, while Section 155 deals with crimes that are not punishable by law. The Judge is authorised by section 190 of the Criminal Procedure Code to take an understanding of non-cognizable offences. The Judge has the power to order the police to file the case, conduct an investigation, and present the challan or report for dismissal under section 156(3) of the Criminal Procedure Code. (2003 P.Cr.L.J.1282).

Section 154's component parts

  • It is information that a police officer receives.
  • Data must be relevant to the offence.
  • The investigation gets underway as soon as the FIR is filed.
  • Providing the information orally or in writing is both possible.
  • The informant must receive a free copy of the FIR right away.

Warrant Cases and Summons Cases

If the case is a summons case, a Judge having knowledge of the offence is essential under Section 204 of the code to issue a summons for the appearance of the accused. He can issue an arrest warrant or summons as per the situation. A summons case is defined as any offence-related matter that is not a warrant case under Section 2(w) of the Code. According to Section 2(x) of the Code, a warrant case is one that involves an offence that carries a sentence of death, life in prison, or a period of custody of more than two years.

Territories and areas covered, and applicability

In all of India, the Criminal Procedure Code is operative. The Indian Constitution's Article 370 restricts the Parliament's authority to pass laws pertaining to Jammu & Kashmir. However, as of 2019, the Parliament removed Jammu and Kashmir from the scope of Article 370, making the CrPC valid throughout India.

With the exception that this Code's provisions-aside from those pertaining to its Chapters VIII, X, and XI-shall not apply-

  1. to the tribal territories
  2. to the State of Nagaland

The competent State Government may, however, apply some or all of these regulations in these regions by notification. Additionally, the Supreme Court of India has decided that the authorities must abide by the spirit of these regulations even in these places.

Under the Code, bodies operate

  1. Indian Supreme Court
  2. Supreme Courts
  3. Additional District Judges as well as the District and Session Judge
  4. Executive Magistrates Judicial Magistrates
  5. Police
  6. Public defenders
  7. Protection counsels
  8. Personnel in the Correctional Services

Penalties that Magistrates May Impose

  • Any legal punishment may be imposed by the Court of a Chief Judicial Magistrate, with the exception of the death penalty, life in prison, and sentences of more than seven years.
  • The Judicial Magistrate of First Class Courts has the authority to impose a sentence of up to three years in prison, a fine of up to ten thousand rupees (reduced by act 25 of 2005 to five thousand rupees), or a combination of the two.
  • The Magistrate Court of Second Class may impose a sentence of confinement for a time not to surpass one year, a penalty not to surpass 5000 rupees (replaced by act 25 of 2005 for rupee 1,000), or both.
  • The Chief Metropolitan Magistrate's Court will have the same authority as the Chief Judicial Magistrate's Court, and the Metropolitan Magistrate's Court will have the same authority as the First Class Judicial Magistrate's Court.


Despite the phrases "bailable" and "non-bailable" having definitions in the code, the word "bail" is not one of them.

The Black's Law Lexicon, however, defines the release of the accused from custody on behalf of the guarantee of the accused person's appearance to the jurisdiction when required.

The Indian Penal Code's list of offences is categorised in the First Schedule of the Code. In addition to stating if an offence is punishable by bail or not, it also states whether it is admissible as evidence or not, which court has jurisdiction to trial the offence, and the maximum and minimum sentence that can or must be imposed for the offence.

To reduce the growing threat of certain crimes in society, the Supreme Court of India has occasionally issued extraordinary directives that have made certain offences that were previously bailable, non-bailable, or vice versa. Certain offences may be made bailable or non-bailable in each State by the State Government.


The court's final, well-reasoned determination of whether the accused is guilty or innocent is known as a judgement. An order mandating the accused to receive punishment or treatment must be included in the judgement when they are found guilty.

The State Government has specified the language in which each court must deliver its rulings. The elements that determine guilt or innocence must be included in it. It typically starts with facts and must show cautious attention to the existing evidence. Along with the punishment imposed, it must also describe the offence in violation of the penal code or any other relevant law. If the accused is found not guilty, the crime for which they were found not guilty must be identified along with a request that they should be released.

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