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Java Custom Exception

In Java, we can create our own exceptions that are derived classes of the Exception class. Creating our own Exception is known as custom exception or user-defined exception. Basically, Java custom exceptions are used to customize the exception according to user need.

Consider the example 1 in which InvalidAgeException class extends the Exception class.

Using the custom exception, we can have your own exception and message. Here, we have passed a string to the constructor of superclass i.e. Exception class that can be obtained using getMessage() method on the object we have created.

In this section, we will learn how custom exceptions are implemented and used in Java programs.

Why use custom exceptions?

Java exceptions cover almost all the general type of exceptions that may occur in the programming. However, we sometimes need to create custom exceptions.

Following are few of the reasons to use custom exceptions:

  • To catch and provide specific treatment to a subset of existing Java exceptions.
  • Business logic exceptions: These are the exceptions related to business logic and workflow. It is useful for the application users or the developers to understand the exact problem.

In order to create custom exception, we need to extend Exception class that belongs to java.lang package.

Consider the following example, where we create a custom exception named WrongFileNameException:

Note: We need to write the constructor that takes the String as the error message and it is called parent class constructor.

Example 1:

Let's see a simple example of Java custom exception. In the following code, constructor of InvalidAgeException takes a string as an argument. This string is passed to constructor of parent class Exception using the super() method. Also the constructor of Exception class can be called without using a parameter and calling super() method is not mandatory.


Java Custom Exception

Example 2:


Java Custom Exception
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