The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analyzing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC) and Special and Local Laws (SLL). NCRB headquarter is located in New Delhi, and it is a part of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA), Government of India.
- NCRB was set up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals to assist the investigators of crime.
- It was set up based on the Taskforce's recommendation, 1985 and National Police Commission, 1977 by merging the Directorate of Coordination and Police Computer (DCPC), Inter-State Criminals Data Branch of CBI, and Central Finger Print Bureau of CBI.
- The earlier Statistical Branch of the Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) was also merged with NCRB but de-merged later.
- The current Director of NCRB is Ramphal Pawar (IPS).
Objectives of NCRB
Some national crime records bureau objectives are:
- Maintain a national database of fingerprints of all criminals in India.
- Create, lead, and coordinate the development of IT applications for Police.
- Collate information and maintain statistics on crime and criminals at the national level.
- Creation and maintenance of Database at the National level for law enforcement agencies.
Latest Crime Report of NCRB
The first edition of 'Crime in India' was obtained in 1953, and the latest edition of the report was obtained in 2019. This is the oldest and the most reputable publication brought out by NCRB.
The data for the report is collected by State Crime Records Bureaux (SCRBx) from the District Crime Records Bureaux (DCRBx).
- 3225071 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes were registered in 2019. Meanwhile, 1368529 were registered in 1980.
8,60,960 cognizable crimes contain 6,04,897 Indian Penal Code (IPC) crimes and 2,56,063 Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes were registered in 19 metropolitan cities in 2019.
- The crime ratestands at 241.2.
- 5156172 cognizable crimes contain 3225071 IPC crimes, and 1930471 Special & Local Laws (SLL) crimes were registered in 2019.
- The rate of registration of crimehas increased by 1.6 %.
- Out of total cognizable crimes, IPC crimescover 62.6 %.
- Offense Affecting the Human Body: 9 % of the total offenses that hurt the human body (1050945) account for hurt. 13.8 % cases were of death by negligence and 10 % of kidnapping.
- Murder: There is a marginal decrease in the number of murder cases. 28918 cases of murder were registered in 2019. Out of 28918 cases, a dispute has been the common reason behind 9516 cases, followed by personal vendetta and gain.
- There is a marginal decrease of 0.7 % in kidnappingand abduction cases.
- The kidnapping of women - 84921 cases (55370 children)
- The kidnapping of men - 23104 cases (15894 children)
- 96295 persons were rescued, out of which 744 were dead.
- Offenses against public tranquillity:
- There is a decrease of 17.6 % in offenses against public tranquillity in 2019 over 2018.
- 63359 such cases registered in 2019.
- 9 % of riot cases registered in 2019.
- Crime Against Women:
- There is an increase of 7.3 % in the cases of crime against women in 2019 over 2018.
- 405861 cases were registered.
- The majority of the cases of crime against women (30.9 %) were registered, followed by 'Assault on Women with Intent to Outrage her Modesty' (21.8 %); 'Kidnapping & Abduction of Women' (17.9 %), and 'Rape' (7.9 %).
- Crime Against Children:
- There is an increase of 4.5 % of cases of crime against children in 2019 over 2018.
- Kidnapping and abduction account for 46.6 % of 148185 cases.
- Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012, including child rape, accounts for 35.3 %.
- There is a significant increase of 63.5 % in cases of cybercrimes.
- There is a decrease of 0.8 % in the registered cases of human trafficking in 2019 over 2018.
- The number of missing persons increased by 9.5 % in 2019.
- A total of 1,12,413 ammunitionwere also seized during 2019.
- Conviction Rate:
- 9 % of murder cases
- 8 % of Rape cases
- 9 % of kidnapping and abduction cases
- 4 % of rioting cases
- 6 % of hurt cases
Crime Records Matching
The main objective of the Crime Records Branch is to collect and circulate information on Crime, Criminals, Persons, and Property for matching purposes. The branch utilizes the following software systems:
- VahanSamanvay: An online Motor Vehicle Coordination System to coordinate stolen and recovered motor vehicles across the country. Police, RTOs, and the Insurance sector are the main stakeholders. The general public is also benefitted from this system.
- Talash Information System: This system maintains and coordinates information, traces unidentified persons and unidentified dead bodies.
- Fake Indian Currency Notes System (FICN): It is an online system to compile fake Indian currency data. Banks, Police, Investigating agencies, other intelligence agencies, and Ministries are stakeholders of this system.
- Fire Arms Coordination System: This system is used for the coordination of stolen and recovered firearms.
- Colour Portrait Building System:This system is used to create portraits of suspects based on the description given by victims and eyewitnesses.
- Since 2011, 600 persons (live & dead) have been united with their families by matching photographs and other physical features.
- Since the launch of the online application "VahanSamanvay" in 2014, 14,14,055 data have been captured, and 30,577 Stolen vehicles have been matched from different states.
Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and System
Crime and Criminal Information System (CCIS) was implemented at the district level from 1995 to 2004. Common Integrated Police Application (CIPA) was implemented at the police station level from 2004 to 2009 in three phases.
Crime and Criminal Tracking Network & Systems (CCTNS) is approved by Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) on 19/06/2009.
CCTNS is approved for the following proposes:
- To creating state and central level databases on crime and criminals.
- To enable easy sharing of real-time information/ intelligence across police stations, districts, and States.
- To improved investigation and crime prevention.
- To improved service delivery to the public or stakeholders through Citizen Portals.
2. Citizen Portal
Various services as enlisted below are being proposed to be provided in the Citizen Portals of CCTNS.
- Filing of Complaints
- Obtaining copies of FIRs.
- Obtaining the status of the complaint/ FIR.
- Details of arrested persons or wanted criminals and their illegal activities.
- Details of kidnapped persons and their matching with arrested, unidentified persons and dead bodies.
- Details of stolen, recovered vehicles, arms, and other properties.
- Verification requests for servants, employment, passport, senior citizen registrations, etc.
- Requests for renewal of various NOCs, Permits, and Clearances
- Portal for sharing information and enabling citizens to download required forms.
3. Inter-operable Criminal Justice System (ICJS)
ICJS has been mandated for integrating CCTNS (Police) with e-Courts, e-prisons, Forensics, Finger Print Bureaux, and Prosecution, which are the key components of the Criminal Justice System.
Implementation of ICJS will ensure quick data transfer among different pillars of the criminal justice system.
Central Finger Print Bureau
The World's First Finger Print Bureau was set up in Calcutta in 1897. A CFPB was established at Shimla in 1905. However, it was closed in 1922 as a result of the retrenchment proposals of the Inchcape Committee.
The Present CFPB came into existence in 1955 under the administrative control of the Intelligence Bureau at Delhi. It was relocated to Kolkata in 1956. The administrative control of CFPB shifted to the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) in 1973, and since July 1986, this has been under the administrative control of NCRB. This bureau is set up:
- To maintain Finger Print record slips of the accused person convicted in various Acts.
- To conduct a search relating to unidentified Interstate suspected persons received from police stations and other investigating agencies in India.
- Interpol and search for references from foreign countries to maintain the fingerprints of international criminals and red corner notices sent by Interpol.
- To undertake an examination of questioned finger impressions on documents received from Central Government Departments, Undertakings, or Courts of law.
- To coordinate the work of the State Finger Print Bureaux and give necessary guidance in all matters relating to Fingerprint Science.
- To conduct the All India Conference of Directors of Finger Print Bureaux.
- To conduct All India Board Examination annually for accrediting Finger Print Experts.
- To conduct the competition in Finger Print science at the All India Police Duty Meet held annually.