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Difference between Democracy and Republic

India is often termed as a democratic country because of the rights that are provided to people. The people are given several rights for several purposes. For instance, in a democratic country like India, the elections are totally dependent upon the people. The ministers are selected by the people, and no other party can influence them. There are several situations, in which the people are given the sole power, i.e., they are the decision-makers. Well, today, almost all the countries have become democratic, and autocratic leadership is rarely seen. Now, you must be wondering as to what do democracy and republic mean.

As it is evident from the above-mentioned example, Democracy is defined as the system wherein the ministers and government is decided/ elected by the people. People have the sole authority to make decisions. The example of democracy is already stated above.

On the other hand, a Republic is defined as the kind of government wherein the nation is ruled by representatives. These representatives are of the citizen body. The term republic has been derived from the Latin word 'res publica,' meaning a public matter or a public affair. Republic is referred to the whole state/ nation. Some examples of republic include the Argentine Republic, Federal Republic of Nigeria, Federal Republic of Germany, etc. There are other republics as well. Thus, the republic is a kind of government wherein the state is the public matter. Now, what are the points of contrast between democracy and republic? Some of the points are given below.

1. Democracy is defined as the kind of government in which the people have the sole authority to elect the legislators. On the other hand, a republic is defined as the form of government in which the state/ nation is ruled by an individual citizen body.
2. In a democracy, the power is solely in the hands of the people. In a republic, the citizen body takes the necessary decisions.
3. There are three kinds of democracy. They are:
  • Direct Democracy
  • Constitutional Democracy
  • Representative Democracy
There are five kinds of republic government. They are:
  • Parliamentary Republic
  • Constitutional Republic
  • Federal Republic
  • Theocratic Republic
  • Presidential Republic
4. In a democratic form of government, the decisions and laws are made by the people of the nation. In the republic form of government, all the decisions and laws are passed by the citizen body.
5. People of the nation have the power to remove and change the existing rights. In a republic, the citizen body is solely responsible for making laws and decisions. The laws made are protected by the constitution and cannot be changed.
6. Well, it is interesting to note that a nation can have one or more than one kind of democracy. On the other hand, a state can have one type of republic.
7. In a democracy, there are no limitations posed on the government of any sort. In a republic kind of government, there are some limitations on the government.
8. The main aim of a democratic government is to have a unanimous will of the people. The main aim of the republic government is to protect and follow the laws of the constitutions.
9. The oldest example of democracy was the Athenian Democracy of Greece. The oldest example of the republic is the Roman Republic that existed from 510 BC to 27 BC.
10. Examples of democracy include India, Nigeria, and the United States. Examples of republic include the Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Republic of Nigeria, Argentine Republic, etc.

So, these are some of the points of contrast between democracy and republic. Well, there are different types of republic and democracy. So, let us discuss about them in detail.

Types of Democracy

  1. Direct Democracy: Direct Democracy was first practiced in Athens, Greece. In this kind of government, the citizens were invited so that they can participate in decision-making. In a direct democracy, the citizens of the nations are involved in decision-making and have several powers to exercise. Well, this kind of democracy is not practiced anymore in any nation.
  2. Representative Democracy: In this type of government, the legislators are chosen by the people so that they can carry out the governance business (the nation has transparency, accountability, stability, empowerment, inclusiveness, etc. For instance, Australia is a representative democracy.
  3. Constitutional Democracy: Constitutional democracy is defined as the democracy in which the constitution decides as to who will represent the nation. For instance, Australia is a constitutional democracy as well.
  4. Monitory Democracy: Monetary Democracy is a new kind of democracy that is coming into existence. In this type of democracy, the government will keep an eye on the private and public agencies.

Types of Republic

  1. Parliamentary Republic: Parliamentary republic is defined as a republic wherein the parliament operates the nation/ state. The people representing the nation are accountable to the constitution. For instance, Canada, Italy, Great Britain, etc., are parliamentary republics.
  2. Constitutional Republic: Constitutional republic is defined as a republic in which the representatives are elected by the people of the nation. There are set rules given in the constitution that people have to follow. The United States is the primary example of this kind of government.
  3. Federal Republic: The Federal Republic is a kind of government wherein there is a federation of states. The federation of states having a republic form of government is called a federal republic. For instance, the Republic of Austria, the United Mexican States, the Federal Republic of Nigeria, etc., are some of the federal republics.
  4. Theocratic Republic: In Theocratic Republic, the representatives chosen are the members of some clergy and the legal system. The legal system and clergy are based on a particular religious law. Examples of theocratic republic include Iran, the Vatican, Saudi Arabia, etc.
  5. Presidential Republic: In Presidential Republic, there are two branches of the constitution, i.e., the president of the country heads an executive branch along with a legislative branch. The president of the country is constitutionally free from the legislature. Some examples of presidential republic include the Philippines, Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, etc.

So, these are some of the significant kinds of democracies and republics. Different nations have different types of governments. There is only one similarity between democracy and republic, i.e., there is more than one type of democracy and republic. The difference between them is given above. Thus, democracy and republic are two forms of government that are essential for different nations.

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