# Difference between Depth First Search, Breadth First Search, and Depth Limit Search in AI

Computer science and AI are represented in their algorithmic search, which is a fundamental requirement for solving hard problems.

The three basic search algorithms are:

• Depth-first search (DFS)
• Breadth-first search (BFS)
• Depth-limit search (DLS)

The importance of each strategy varies. They work in different ways, and all of them have their strengths and limitations. We will explore DFS, BFS, and DLS here, bring forward the multiple variations, and provide some practical examples in this particular article.

### Introduction:

AI or even computer science could not exist without search algorithms; these algorithms permit computers to search and traverse the vast solution spaces most efficiently. Among the searches, DFS, BFS, and DLS are the methods to be used in graph and tree searches.

### 1. Depth First Search (DFS):

This methodical algorithm will follow the recursive algorithm as long as the constraints allow. It will expand all the branches before going back to the main tree to investigate every vertex in a graph or tree. It applies the LIFO (Last In, First Out) method, which is resorted to using either a stack data structure or recursion.

Characteristics of DFS:

• Beginning at the root node, depth-first traversal traverses as far as feasible down each branch before backtracking.
• Due to its functionality, nodes with the current path are stored, allowing the system to use less memory.
• Once the deep down of the search graph is discovered, it becomes extremely suitable for a DFS network to conduct its search deep into the graph.
• The complexity of DFS is O(V + E), which measures how the algorithm grows in time. V represents the number of vertices, and E represents edges.

### 2. Breadth First Search (BFS):

This is a terminating methodic exploration technique for networks and trees. It accurately examines every vertex or group of vertices. The FIFO (First in, First out) standard is most frequently implemented as a circular queue, a common data structure.

Characteristics of BFS:

• The process of finding a root node uses the breadth-first traversal algorithm, which runs every expansive node adjacent to the current depth.
• In this case, a balanced network that measures the length of the adjacent edges allows the shortest path to be found between the initial node and any other reachable node.
• In this case, a BFS is forced to store every node of the inspected level in a large amount of memory.
• It performs its work admirably for sparse graphs or trees containing a few nodes and edges by finding the shortest path.
• Further, the temporal complexity of BFS = O(V + E), where V denotes the number of vertices and E is the number of edges.

### 3. Depth Limit Search (DLS):

DFS is a subtle modification of the depth-limit-layer structure, where DLS limits the depth. It defines the lower bound of recursion to avoid infinitely recursive calls and release space.

Features of DLS:

• Depth-limit search is an advanced DFS algorithm in which the searching process terminates at a given level.
• Combining the benefits of DFS with a controlled exploration depth is appropriate in situations where endless loops must be avoided, but a thorough investigation is necessary.
• Setting different depth limits for DLS assists in controlling memory consumption and the exploration depth of neural networks.
• Distances are based on the graph or tree's topology, and the depth limit of DLS affects its spatial complexity.

## Comparison Chart:

CriteriaDepth First Search (DFS)Breath First Search (BFS)Depth Limit Search (DLS)
Traversal StrategyLIFO (Last In, First Out)FIFO (First In, First Out)LIFO with Depth Limit
Memory UsageLowHighModerate
Suitable for Deep GraphsYesNoYes
Suitable for Shallow GraphsNoYesYes (with appropriate depth limit)
Finding Shortest PathNoYesNo
Time ComplexityO(V + E)O(V + E)Depends on depth limit

## Conclusion:

In summary, the basic search algorithms in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and computer science are Depth First Search (DFS), Breadth First Search (BFS), and Depth Limit Search (DLS). Each one has unique characteristics and purposes. Deep exploration is advised for DFS, whereas shallow graphs perform better for BFS. In contrast, DLS is the best option for balancing memory consumption and wide enough exploration depth. Knowing and understanding the nature of these algorithms is very important for professionals to operate in various circles efficiently.

The comparison provides the user with this key element of selecting the optimal algorithm based on which issue is major and which restraints exist for finding a working solution in AI applications.