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Distributed Database System in DBMS

A distributed database is essentially a database that is dispersed across numerous sites, i.e., on various computers or over a network of computers, and is not restricted to a single system. A distributed database system is spread across several locations with distinct physical components. This can be necessary when different people from all over the world need to access a certain database. It must be handled such that, to users, it seems to be a single database.


1. Homogeneous Database: A homogeneous database stores data uniformly across all locations. All sites utilize the same operating system, database management system, and data structures. They are therefore simple to handle.

2. Heterogeneous Database: With a heterogeneous distributed database, many locations may employ various software and schema, which may cause issues with queries and transactions. Moreover, one site could not be even aware of the existence of the other sites. Various operating systems and database applications may be used by various machines. They could even employ separate database data models. Translations are therefore necessary for communication across various sites.

Data may be stored on several places in two ways using distributed data storage:

  1. Replication - With this strategy, every aspect of the connection is redundantly kept at two or more locations. It is a completely redundant database if the entire database is accessible from every location. Systems preserve copies of the data as a result of replication. This has advantages since it makes more data accessible at many locations. Moreover, query requests can now be handled in parallel. But, there are some drawbacks as well. Data must be updated often. All changes performed at one site must be documented at every site where that relation is stored in order to avoid inconsistent results. There is a tone of overhead here. Moreover, since concurrent access must now be monitored across several sites, concurrency management becomes far more complicated.
  2. Fragmentation - In this method, the relationships are broken up into smaller pieces and each fragment is kept in the many locations where it is needed. To ensure there is no data loss, the pieces must be created in a way that allows for the reconstruction of the original relation. As fragmentation doesn't result in duplicate data, consistency is not a concern.

Relationships can be fragmented in one of two ways:

  • Separating the relation into groups of tuples using rows results in horizontal fragmentation, where each tuple is allocated to at least one fragment.
  • Vertical fragmentation, also known as splitting by columns, occurs when a relation's schema is split up into smaller schemas. A common candidate key must be present in each fragment in order to guarantee a lossless join

Sometimes a strategy that combines fragmentation and replication is employed.

Uses for distributed databases

  • The corporate management information system makes use of it.
  • Multimedia apps utilize it.
  • Used in hotel chains, military command systems, etc.
  • The production control system also makes use of it

Characteristics of distributed databases

Distributed databases are logically connected to one another when they are part of a collection, and they frequently form a single logical database. Data is physically stored across several sites and is separately handled in distributed databases. Each site's processors are connected to one another through a network, but they are not set up for multiprocessing.

A widespread misunderstanding is that a distributed database is equivalent to a loosely coupled file system. It's considerably more difficult than that in reality. Although distributed databases use transaction processing, they are not the same as systems that use it.

Generally speaking, distributed databases have the following characteristics:

  • Place unrelated
  • Spread-out query processing
  • The administration of distributed transactions
  • Independent of hardware
  • Network independent of operating systems
  • Transparency of transactions
  • DBMS unrelated<

Architecture for a distributed database

Both homogeneous and heterogeneous distributed databases exist.

All of the physical sites in a homogeneous distributed database system use the same operating system and database software, as well as the same underlying hardware. It can be significantly simpler to build and administer homogenous distributed database systems since they seem to the user as a single system. The data structures at each site must either be the same or compatible for a distributed database system to be considered homogeneous. Also, the database program utilized at each site must be compatible or same.

The hardware, operating systems, or database software at each site may vary in a heterogeneous distributed database. Although separate sites may employ various technologies and schemas, a variation in schema might make query and transaction processing challenging.

Various nodes could have dissimilar hardware, software, and data structures, or they might be situated in incompatible places. Users may be able to access data stored at a different place but not upload or modify it. Because heterogeneous distributed databases are sometimes challenging to use, many organizations find them to be economically unviable.

Distributed databases' benefits

Using distributed databases has a lot of benefits.

  • As distributed databases provide modular development, systems may be enlarged by putting new computers and local data in a new location and seamlessly connecting them to the distributed system.
  • With centralized databases, failures result in a total shutdown of the system. Distributed database systems, however, continue to operate with lower performance when a component fails until the issue is resolved.
  • If the data is near to where it is most often utilized, administrators can reduce transmission costs for distributed database systems. Centralized systems are unable to accommodate this<

Types of Distributed Database

  • Data instances are created in various areas of the database using replicated data. Distributed databases may access identical data locally by utilizing duplicated data, which reduces bandwidth. Read-only and writable data are the two types of replicated data that may be distinguished.
  • Only the initial instance of replicated data can be changed in read-only versions; all subsequent corporate data replications are then updated. Data that is writable can be modified, but only the initial occurrence is affected.
    Distributed Database System in DBMS
  • Primary keys that point to a single database record are used to identify horizontally fragmented data. Horizontal fragmentation is typically used when business locations only want access to the database for their own branch.
  • Using primary keys that are duplicates of each other and accessible to each branch of the database is how vertically fragmented data is organized. When a company's branch and central location deal with the same accounts differently, vertically fragmented data is used.
  • Data that has been edited or modified for decision support databases is referred to as reorganised data. When two distinct systems are managing transactions and decision support, reorganised data is generally utilised. When there are numerous requests, online transaction processing must be reconfigured, and decision support systems might be challenging to manage.
  • In order to accommodate various departments and circumstances, separate schema data separates the database and the software used to access it. Often, there is overlap between many databases and separate schema data

Distributed database examples

  • Apache Ignite, Apache Cassandra, Apache HBase, Couchbase Server, Amazon SimpleDB, Clusterpoint, and FoundationDB are just a few examples of the numerous distributed databases available.
  • Large data sets may be stored and processed with Apache Ignite across node clusters. GridGain Systems released Ignite as open source in 2014, and it was later approved into the Apache Incubator program. RAM serves as the database's primary processing and storage layer in Apache Ignite.
  • Apache Cassandra has its own query language, Cassandra Query Language, and it supports clusters that span several locations (CQL). Replication tactics in Cassandra may also be customized.
  • Apache HBase offers a fault-tolerant mechanism to store huge amounts of sparse data on top of the Hadoop Distributed File System. Moreover, it offers per-column Bloom filters, in-memory execution, and compression. Although Apache Phoenix offers a SQL layer for HBase, HBase is not meant to replace SQL databases.
  • An interactive application that serves several concurrent users by producing, storing, retrieving, aggregating, altering, and displaying data is best served by Couchbase Server, a NoSQL software package. Scalable key value and JSON document access is provided by Couchbase Server to satisfy these various application demands.
  • Along with Amazon S3 and Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, Amazon SimpleDB is utilised as a web service. Developers may request and store data with Amazon SimpleDB with a minimum of database maintenance and administrative work.
  • Relational database designs' complexity, scalability problems, and performance restrictions are all eliminated with Clusterpoint. Open APIs are used to handle data in the XLM or JSON formats. Clusterpoint does not have the scalability or performance difficulties that other relational database systems experience since it is a schema-free document database.

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