ED: Enforcement Directorate
The full form of ED is Enforcement Directorate. It is also known as the Directorate of Enforcement. It was set up in the year 1956. Basically, Enforcement Directorate (ED) is an economic intelligence organization that defends against financial crimes as well as laws of economics in the nation.
The Directorate of Enforcement has the responsibility of enforcing the FEMA (Foreign Exchange Management Act) Act of 1999, and it is also responsible for enforcement of certain provisions that fall under the Money Laundering Prevention Act. Investigation-related work and many prosecution cases that come under the PML have been entrusted or passed on to the Directorate of Enforcement.
The Directorate of Enforcement comes under the administrative control of the revenue department and Finance Ministry of the Government of India. The revenue department of India has control over ED only for operational purposes. The headquarter of the Directorate of Enforcement is located in New Delhi, but it also has many regional offices all across PAN India.
Recently, Sanjay Kumar Mishra (IRS) is appointed as the chief of the Enforcement Directorate that comes in the rank of secretary in the government of India. He was previously holding the position of Chief Commissioner in the Income Tax department.
Note: Before the FEMA became effective in the year 2000 (1 June 2000 to be exact), the ED was enforcing its regulations under the Foreign Exchange Act of 1973.
We have read a brief overview and history of the Directorate of Enforcement in the introduction part of this article. Now, we will discuss the history and overview of the Enforcement Directorate in-depth to learn more about it.
Enforcement Directorate's Detail History
Enforcement Unit of India was formed back then to handle the violations of Exchange control laws acting under the Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA Act) of 1947. If we start tracking back the origin of the Enforcement Directorate, we have to go back to May 1st, 1956. On May 1st, 1956, the 'Enforcement Unit of India' was formed under the Department of Economic Affairs. The enforcement Unit was headed by the chairmanship of the director of Enforcement, who is a legal service officer, and assisted by a legal officer on deputation of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
Other than the above-mentioned legal officers, 3 inspectors from the Special Police Establishment were also appointed to 3 offices of the Enforcement Unit (Branches of Bombay and Calcutta beside the Delhi headquarter office). In the year 1960, the Directorate of Enforcement's administrative control was passed on to the Department of Revenue from the Department of Economic Affairs. But before that, in 1957, the name of the Enforcement unit was changed and renamed as Directorate of Enforcement. At the same time, ED had opened one more office in the Madras (Statehood level at that time).
As of now, Enforcement Directorate enforces and regulates the following two laws in India:
Brief Overview of Enforcement Directorate
Here, we are discussing some basic facts about the Directorate of Enforcement. We will keep them easy and simple so that you can understand them easily. Following are the basic facts related to the Directorate of Enforcement that we should know about:
List of regional offices of ED in India
The Directorate of Enforcement has a total of 10 regional or zonal offices in which each of which is headed by a Deputy Director of ED.
Here we are providing you with the list of all the regional or zonal offices of the Directorate of Enforcement in India:
Additionally, with all these zonal offices, the Directorate of Enforcement also has 11 sub-zonal offices across PAN India in which each of which is headed by the Assistant Directors of ED.
Here is a list of all the sub-zonal offices of the Directorate of Enforcement in India:
Note: Total offices of Directorate of Enforcement in India (Including both regional as well as sub-regional offices) have been increased from 21 to 49 effectively. But, offices other than those 21 we mentioned above in the list are still underway with a full contingent of the workforce and not operational as of now.
Indian Services in ED
As we discussed earlier, the Directorate of Enforcement comes under the Department of revenue, but that doesn't mean that ED is only composed of only revenue service of India. Actually ED is composed of many Indian services such as administrative, revenue, etc.
Following is the list of all the Indian services offices that the Directorate of Enforcement is composed of:
Enforcement Directorate inducts Assistant Enforcement Officers (AEO) for its own cadre too. The AEO recruited by the Directorate of Enforcement is the only one as the departmental staff of the organization that serves in it.
The objective of the Directorate of Enforcement (ED)
The objectives of ED itself specify the goals and goals of the Directorate of Enforcement, and therefore it becomes very important for us to study them. Following is the list of all the main objectives of the Directorate of Enforcement:
Special Courts under Enforcement Directorate
To punish the culprit for an offense under section 4 of the PMLA Act, the Enforcement Directorate or central government can designate trials at one or more session courts referring to as a special court. The trial designated in special courts is done after consultation with the CJ (Chief Justice) of the High court. The special court set up by ED for such trials under section 4 of the PMLA act is also called "PMLA court." If any appeal has to be raised against any order passed by the PMLA court, it can be directly filled in the respective high court for further jurisdiction of the matter.
Core Values of Directorate of Enforcement:
As the Directorate of Enforcement is one of the premier financial investigations of the Indian Government, it functions strictly adhering to India's Laws and Constitution and respectfully compile with the guidance of all the lawful authorities of India. The Enforcement Directorate always works towards maintaining and establishing high professional credibility and standards.
Following are the core values that are adhered to by these professionals standards, are essential and followed by the Directorate of Enforcement:
Now, let's study the core values of ED in detail and learn how its aim with its core values and adhere to them.
1. Excellence: The Directorate of Enforcement always aims to provide excellence in all the work they do, and they seek to:
2. Integrity: The directorate of Enforcement looks for integrity in the system, work for culture, and working staff as its core requirement.Directorate of Enforcement believes that integrity as a core value displays:
3. Impartiality: Impartiality is also one of the major aspects or core values that the Directorate of Enforcement adheres. According to Enforcement Directorate, Impartiality as a core value aims to:
4. Commitment: For the Directorate of Enforcement, commitment means application, determination, dedication, and perseverance to achieve results with a high success rate and low-risk factors. According to Enforcement Directorate, Commitment as a core value requires:
5. Accountability: Enforcement Directorate believes that they are responsible and answerable for the outcomes of all the tasks they perform. Directorate of Enforcement believes that accountability as a core value for the task is:
The function of the Directorate of Enforcement:
Till now, we have discussed the history, overview, objective, and introduction of the Directorate of Enforcement in this article. Now, in this last section, we will discuss the functions of the Directorate to understand its working. We may have some basic idea about the functioning of the Enforcement Directorate with their history and overview, but to understand them in a better way, we have to go through the function list them.
Following are the main functions that the Directorate of Enforcement in India performs: