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Element Definition Chemistry

Chemical elements or elements are such pure compounds that are composed of only one sort of atom. The number of protons in the nuclei of pure elements equals the number of electrons in an atom. Every chemical compound and other material may be found here since they all contain a different element. There are now 118 chemical elements since, to yet, only 118 have been discovered on the planet, some of which are synthetic elements produced via study and some of which are natural elements. 94 elements occur naturally on earth; the remaining elements were either imported from other planets or produced intentionally. The total number of chemical elements reached 118 in 2007. Elements with higher atomic numbers are occasionally generated due to induced nuclear processes, referred to as artificial elements.

Element Definition Chemistry

Our scientists have calculated the abundance of each element in our galaxy using spectroscopy. As a result of their calculations, 12 elements were identified that were most abundant in this galaxy, including hydrogen, helium, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, neon, iron, nickel, potash, Sulphur, magnesium, silicon, and many others. The image above shows the atomic numbers, atomic weights, and symbols of the chemical elements found in nature and those produced artificially.

Classification of Elements

The states of all the elements known so far are different, which are of the following types-


Metals are those elements that readily form bonds with other elements. Metals are more helpful than non-metals and more expensive due to their ability to form bonds. Most natural metals may be found in ores made from minerals like calcium, potassium, titanium, iron, and aluminum. Only minerals and ores are used to produce the majority of metals. Metals are substances that readily establish bonds by giving up electrons.

Metals and non-metals are the two categories into which elements in chemistry are split. Metals are effective electrical conductors. Typically, metals only exist in their solid form. In other words, metals are those elements that are good heat- and electricity-conductors while also possessing lustrous appearances and high tensile strength.

Mankind just recently learned about metal. The Upper Paleolithic era saw the first discovery of copper metal. In the later Vedic era, iron was more identified. However, there are numerous such outliers, such as mercury or mercury, which are termed metals but do not have the characteristics of metals. To claim that mercury is a sort of metal, yet even in its liquid condition, it transforms into jaggery.

How many metals are there

Around 118 elements have been identified so far, 91 of which are metals, according to the periodic table. Ferrous metals and non-ferrous metals make up the two main groups into which metals are separated. Both of these kinds of metals have unique characteristics and classifications of their own. The Latin term is where the word ferrous or iron comes from. The term "ferrous metal" refers to a metal with a high concentration of pure iron. if the metal has iron incorporated into it rather than pure iron.

More ferrous than non-ferrous metals are utilized. It is manufactured in various methods depending on its content and the amount of molasses. The majority of the commercial and industrial sectors use iron metal extensively. Ferrous metals include cast iron, stainless steel, light weight steel, etc. These metals have extremely high tensile strengths.

Non-ferrous elements refer to all pure metals other than iron. Non-ferrous metals include items like aluminum, lead, copper, zinc, and nickel, among others. Non-ferrous metals are those substances, as the name implies, in which iron is not employed.

Metal properties and their use in chemicals

Metals are the wealthiest elements. Importantly, metals readily form bonds, which enhances their chemical characteristics. The metals' applications and chemical characteristics are as follows:

  • Metals have a higher inherent reactivity than they do. When metals combine with air, metal oxides are created. Because of their reactivity, metals are sometimes employed as flammable substances. Mercury is the least reactive metal, whereas sodium and lithium are the most flammable.
  • Metals frequently form bonds and are more reactive. They emit hydrogen when interacting with water, which causes alkali to develop there.
  • A metal and an acid combine to make a salt.
  • Boiling water is used to react the more reactive metals with the less reactive metals. These metal oxides are created in this instance by the reaction.

Physical Characteristics of Metal

Metals have a wide range of chemical and physical characteristics. These characteristics distinguish metals from non-metals. The physical characteristics of metals are as follows:

  • Metals are malleable, meaning they can be pounded into sheets. This is how the tin sheet for the roofing is created.
  • Metals have the ability to shine as well. More so than common elements, metals sparkle and reflect light.
  • Ductility is another characteristic of metals. They can be drawn into wire because they are tensile. Copper wire, as you may have noticed. Do you know that 2 grams of gold can be dragged for a distance of 2 kilometers.
  • Non-metals lack the ability to convert, in contrast to metals. Non-metals absorb the incident light.
  • Allotropic modification: Metals are distinguished from non-metals by their ability to form bonds. Metals are special because of their capacity to create bonds, that is, any metal may be seen in numerous forms.

Uses of Metals

Most decorations are made of metals, including gold, silver, etc. Together with this, ornamental things for the home are also made of metal. Most metals are employed in all work if they are seen. It also creates iron, brass, copper, and other metal utensils. Typically, metal is used to construct a house to create doors, windows, grills, etc.

The majority of practically everything manufactured in the world is made of metals. Metal is used in business on a regular basis, in large enterprises, and in factories. If observed, the metal industry has shown to be highly significant and successful in the modern era. Because metal is a good heat conductor, it is also employed in the wire produced for various electrical tasks. In addition, a metal's boiling point is also quite high, along with its melting point.


Groups 14 (XIV) through 18 (XVIII) of the periodic table's right-upper quadrant contain them. In addition, the first group's topmost element is a non-metal. In addition to hydrogen, non-metals include zinc, iron, earth, Sulphur, phosphor, halogen, and inert gases. Just 18 elements from the periodic table are often classified as non-metals, whereas more than 80 elements fall within the metals group. Yet, non-metals comprise most of the earth's hydrosphere, atmosphere, and womb. Moreover, non-metals make up the majority of the elements in living things.

Nonmetals in the periodic table

In the top right side of the periodic table are the non-metals. The nonmetal element group typically consists of the following substances, including ideal gases and halogens.

  • Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Selenium, and Hydrogen.
  • Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine are all halogen elements.
  • Helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon are examples of ideal gas elements.

Physical properties of non-metals

  • Ionization energy is high in non-metals.
  • Their electronegativity is high.
  • Non-metals are poor electrical conductors because they are insulators.
  • They lack the shine of metals and are drab.
  • Poor heat conductors.
  • They are poor sound conductors and don't produce a sound when struck.
  • They acquire electrons quickly.
  • Moreover, non-metals can exist as solids, liquids, or gases.
  • Acidic oxides can occur on non-metals.
  • Non-metals cannot be formed into sheets or pulled into wires because they are often fragile. In other words, non-metals lack ductility and malleability. Non-metals fracture under pressure, breaking into fragments.
  • In general, non-metals are poor heat and electrical conductors. One exception to this rule is a Graphite. It is used to create electrodes because it is an excellent conductor of electricity.
  • At room temperature, non-metals can exist as solids, liquids, or gases. For instance, carbon, Sulphur, and phosphorus are solids at room temperature.
  • Non-metals are often lackluster and are drab. Iodine and Graphite are the exceptions. They have a glossy surface, which makes them appear shiny.
  • Low tensile strength applies to non-metals. They are fragile and not very sturdy.
  • Metals are heavier than non-metals.
  • In general, non-metals are soft. Diamond, a form of carbon, is an exception. Diamond is quite tough. In actuality, diamond is thought to be the hardest natural material.
  • Except for graphite, all non-metals have low melting and boiling points. Despite being a non-metal, Graphite has a high melting point.

Chemical properties of non-metals

  • Oxides that are not metallic are acidic by nature
  • They join with hydrogen to create stable molecules.
  • Water thoroughly hydrolyzes its chlorides.
  • Oxygen and non-metals react to generate acidic or neutral oxides.
  • Hydrogen gas is not created when non-metals interact with water (steam).
  • As non-metals have negatively charged electrons, they do not react with acids.
  • Non-metals do not interact with a salt solution; instead, they push out less reactive non-metals.
  • Covalent chlorides, which are non-electrolytes, are produced when non-metals react with chlorine.

Uses of Non-Metals

The following are some of the main applications for non-metals:

  • Sulfur metal sometimes called the "king of acids," creates sulfuric acid.
  • Jewelry may also be made from some non-metals, like a diamond.
  • Film for cameras also contains silver nitrate.
  • Chlorine is a non-metal that is used to disinfect water.
  • Pencils are made using carbon.
  • Our essential air is also known as oxygen gas.
  • Iodine is a component of antibacterial products like betadine.
  • Many organic elements include nitrogen-containing nonmetals. In addition to these, nitrogen can also be present in proteins, enzymes, hormones, and nucleic acids.

What is the difference between Metals & Non-Metals?

  • Metals become basic when they combine with oxygen to generate oxides. wherever when non-metals create oxides, they do so in an acidic manner.
  • Except for inert gases, nonmetals have a high electron affinity, while metals have a low electron affinity.
  • Non-metals have no tensile strength; pulling on them causes them to shatter. Metals, however, have the tensile property and may be pulled into thin wire.
  • All metals, with the exception of mercury metal, are found in nature as solids. Non-metals can be found in all three states, i.e., solid, liquid, and gas.
  • Metals can conduct heat and electricity, whereas non-metals lack this quality. Except for graphite, non-metals are poor heat- and electricity-conductors.
  • Metals have the capacity to be molded. Nevertheless, non-metals have a fragile character.
  • Non-metals have low melting and boiling points, whereas metals have high values.
  • Metals exhibit a unique sort of sheen known as metallic luster. Except for diamond and graphite, non-metals have no shine.
  • Metals make a sound when they are hit. When non-metals are hammered, there is no sound produced.
  • Metals have a high density compared to nonmetals' low density.
  • Metals combine to create alloys, and mercury and metals combine to create acid gums. Non-metals don't exhibit this reaction; hence they don't produce alloys.


Metalloids are elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals. They are located between metals and metalloids on Mendeleev's periodic table. Metals may generate chemicals that act as both acids and bases, known as amphoteric substances, and all metals have the property of being semiconductors.

Metalloid Examples

1. Boron

Boron is a chemical sub-metallic element that appears black and glossy and is generated from cosmic rays colliding with an object in the universe. Boron is a Mendeleev periodic table group 13 p-block element with atomic number 5, an atomic mass of 10.80, a melting point of 2200 C, and a boiling point of 2550 C. Boron is present in chemical substances on Earth. Boron's compound B2O3 is used to manufacture boric acid, a medication in the glass industry.

2. Silicon

Silicon is the most prevalent metalloid element on the planet, with an atomic number of 14, an atomic weight of 28, a melting point of 1414 degrees Celsius, and a boiling point of 3265 degrees Celsius. There are several silicon compounds that are commonly utilized. Silicon is most commonly used in the power, diamond, and electronic industries, which is why the computer center is called as Silicon Valley.

3. Antimony

Antimony is a chemical sub-metallic element that occurs naturally in the form of different compounds. It is a part of the p block. It is a glossy and grey metal with an atomic number of 51, an atomic weight of 121.7, a melting point of 630 degrees Celsius, and a boiling point of 1587 degrees Celsius. Sb2S3, an antimony compound, is utilized as an inflammable substance at the tip of matchsticks and in fireworks. Antimony sulfide is also utilised in rubber vulcanization.

4. Germanium

Germanium is also known as a chemical brittle submetallic element with an atomic number of 32 and an atomic weight of 72.6. The melting point of germanium is 958 degrees Celsius while the boiling point is 2833 degrees Celsius. Germanium behaves similarly to a semiconductor. As a result, it is employed in producing transistors, optic fibers, photoelectric cells, and solar cells, as a catalyst in polymerization, and various other laboratory operations.

5. Polonium

Polonium is a transition metal element with an atomic number of 84 and an atomic weight of 209. Polonium is one such sub-metal with the greatest number of isotopes.

6. Arsenic

Arsenic is a chemical sub-metallic element that is predominantly grey and yellow in appearance. Arsenic in grey is brittle and opaque, but arsenic in yellow is translucent. Arsenic has an atomic mass of 74 and an atomic number of 33. Arsenic can be used in various ways since it can generate a range of compounds. Arsenic usage Gallium Arsenide, the most recent substance, is employed in the manufacture of computer chips.

7. Tellurium

Tellurium is a brittle, poisonous tin-like metallic element that may be found in the periodic table's P block. It has an atomic weight of 170 and an atomic number of 52. Tellurium is utilised in the production of a wide range of alloys to increase mechanics and in other laboratory processes.

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