Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

English Grammar Rules

English Grammar can be defined as a "reflection of the English language" in simple terms. Language began with sounds, which evolved into words, phrases, and statements.

Grammar is the totality of a person's comprehensive knowledge and understanding of a language. Grammar knowledge is not essential for learning a language, but it is necessary to grasp the language effectively. In this post, we will assist students in learning, understanding, and applying English Grammar in their daily lives.

English Grammar Rules

English Grammatical Structure

English grammar acts as the basis for all of our writing and speaking abilities in English. The first topic to comprehend English Grammar is Parts of Speech, which was taught in school at the start of the English language learning process.

Certain parts of speech in English grammar can also serve the functions of other parts of speech. English grammar can sometimes be quick and simple to understand, but with the information in this article, you will be able to grasp the rules of English usage as well as confidently speak and write English.

What Exactly Is Grammar?

Grammar is described as a set of rules for combining individual words to create complex meanings. You can improve the strength, clarity, and effectiveness of your writing by applying grammar principles to it.

The structure of the English language is governed by a system of rules and principles known as English grammar. It contains principles for building sentences, employing parts of speech, and structuring concepts in a way that efficiently conveys thoughts and ideas. Efficient communication in while speaking and writing English requires proper English grammar.

Why is English Grammar Important?

Here are some of the reasons why English grammar is essential:

  • Communication Clarity: Grammar offers a framework that aids in clarifying the meaning of the message being conveyed. The use of proper language guarantees that the message is presented clearly and without ambiguity.
  • Professionalism: Using proper grammar in written and oral communication indicates professionalism. This is especially correct in professional scenarios like business, academia, and other formal settings.
  • Academic Success: A good understanding of grammar is required for academic success. Grammar skills are required for clear and succinct essay writing, research papers, as well as other academic work.
  • Career Advancement: Effective communication abilities are highly prized in many occupations, and accurate grammar usage is a crucial aspect of communication. Good grammatical skills can lead to growth and success in your work.
  • Confidence: Knowledge of grammar fosters communication confidence, which can improve personal and professional connections.

To summarise, efficient communication, career success, academic performance, and personal confidence all rely on English grammar.

Elements of English Grammar

English Grammar consists of various elements. These elements are the basic pillar of English Grammar. Thus it is vital to know these elements for a proper understanding of the English Language.

Here are some essential English grammatical elements:

Parts Of Speech: Nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections are the eight components of speech in English. Knowing how these parts of speech are essential for creating grammatically accurate sentences.

Sentence structure: In English, sentences typically consist of a subject, verb, and object. Knowing how to put these pieces together in a sentence is critical for effective grammar usage.

Tenses: There are 12 tenses in English, including past, present, and future tenses. Knowing how to effectively employ these tenses is essential for describing acts that have already happened, are currently occurring, or will take place later on.

Subject-verb agreement: This rule stipulates that the number of the subject and verb in a statement must agree. "She is," for instance, is correct, however "She are" is incorrect.

Punctuation: Comma, period, question mark, and exclamation mark are employed to clarify the meanings and structure phrases.

Articles: The articles "a" and "an" are utilized to indicate a noun in English. Knowing how to effectively employ articles is essential for generating grammatically accurate sentences.

Modal verbs are utilized to convey possibility, capacity, necessity, or permissions. Knowing how to utilize modal verbs appropriately is critical for properly communicating meaning.

Phrasal verbs are verbs that combine a main verb with a preposition or adverb. Knowing how to utilize phrasal verbs appropriately is critical for successfully transmitting meaning.

To summarise, understanding these critical parts of English grammar is critical for building grammatically accurate sentences and successfully communicating meaning in spoken and written contexts.

English Grammar Rules

English grammar rules are principles that govern how the English language should be utilized in both written and spoken forms. These guidelines provide a framework for structuring words and sentences to efficiently and clearly convey meaning.

Here are some fundamental English grammatical rules:

  1. Nouns are words that are used to describe a person, location, thing, or idea. "Desk," "chair," "novel," and "friend" are some examples.
  2. Verbs are phrases that define an action, event, or state of being. "Run," "drink," "bath," and "be" are some examples.
  3. Adjectives are words that are utilized to characterize a noun or pronoun. "Red," "pleasant," "tall," and "helpful" are some examples.
  4. Adverbs are words that characterize a verb, adjective, or other adverbs. "Speedily," "loudly," "extremely," and "well" are some examples.
  5. Pronouns are words that are used to substitute a noun or noun phrase. "He," "she," "it," and "them" are some examples.
  6. Prepositions are words that illustrate the link between a noun or pronoun and the other terms in a sentence. "In," "on," "at," and "under" are some examples.
  7. Conjunctions: A conjunction is a term used in a statement to join words, phrases, or clauses. "And," "but," "or," and "because" are some examples.
  8. Articles are words that show whether a noun is specialised or generic. "The," "a," and "an" are a few examples.
  9. Tenses: In English Grammar there are twelve tenses: present simple, present continuous, past simple, past continuous, present perfect, past perfect continuous, past perfect continuous, future simple, future continuous, future perfect, and future perfect continuous.
  10. Subject-verb agreement: The subject and verb of a statement must match in number (singular or plural). "He walks," for instance, is correct, but "He walk" is incorrect.
  11. Sentence structure: A statement must contain a subject and a verb, as well as convey a complete notion. It can be straightforward, compound, complicated, or compound-complex.
  12. Punctuation: The correct use of punctuation markings such as commas, periods, question marks, and exclamation points is critical for written communication to be clear and precise.
  13. Nouns can be singular (relating to one thing) or plural (alluding to multiple things) (referring to more than one thing). There are certain exceptions to the rule that plural nouns are produced by adding "-s" or "-es" to the single noun (e.g., "child" becomes "children").
  14. Countable and uncountable nouns: Certain nouns (for example, "book," "dog") can be counted and have a plural form. Some nouns (for example, "water," "advice") are uncountable, which means they cannot be numbered and do not have a plural form.
  15. Possessive nouns are words that convey owning or a relationship. Possessive nouns are created through the addition of an apostrophe and "s" (e.g., "the mouse's tail"), but plural nouns ending in "-s" are formed by adding simply an apostrophe (e.g., "the kitties' tails").
  16. Comparative and superlative adjectives: Comparative adjectives comparing two things (for example, "she is shorter than him"), but superlative adjectives include comparison of three or more things (e.g., "She is the shortest person in the class"). Comparative adjectives are created by including "-er" or "more" before the adjective, but superlative adjectives are produced by adding "-est" or "most" before the adjective.
  17. Modal verbs (for example, "can," "should," and "must") are utilized to communicate ability, permission, obligation, or potential. They are often accompanied by the fundamental form of the verb, and there is no past or future tense.
  18. Indirect speech (also referred as reported speech) is used to relay what a person said instead of using their words exactly. Direct speech (also referred as quoted speech) employs the speaker's precise words, which are frequently surrounded by quotation marks.
  19. Relative clauses: Relative clauses in a statement convey extra details about a noun or pronoun. They are presented by relative pronouns (for example, "who," "which," or "that") and might be important (restrictive) or non-essential (non-restrictive) to the statement's meaning.
  20. The subject of a sentence gets the action of the verb instead of performing it in the passive voice. The passive voice is frequently employed to highlight the activity or object of the phrase rather than the person executing the action.
  21. Gerunds and infinitives are both verb forms that are employed as nouns. Gerunds are created by appending "-ing" to a verb (for example, "swimming"), whereas infinitives are created by appending "to" in front of a verb (e.g., "to swim"). They are frequently used following verbs (for example, "enjoy," "decide") or as the subject or object of a statement.
  22. Phrasal verbs are generated by combining a verb with a particle (e.g., "take off," "look up"). They frequently have idiomatic connotations that cannot be implied from the distinct word meanings.
    It is created by utilizing the version of "be" followed by the verb's past participle.
    These are some of the fundamental English grammatical rules. It takes time and practice to master them, but it is necessary for good English communication. Now let us look at some more.
  23. Conditional sentences are utilized for conveying a hypothetical circumstance and its effects. They are created by combining the words "if" and a specific verb tense. "I'll go to the supermarket if I have time," for example.
  24. Prepositional phrases: Prepositional phrases in a statement provide additional details about a noun or verb. They are made up of a preposition and its object (e.g., "in the park," "with a friend").
  25. Articles containing both countable and uncountable nouns: Uncountable nouns do not normally require an article (for example, "a book," "the cat"), whereas countable nouns do (e.g., "water," "advice"). Some uncountable nouns, on the other hand, can be used with an article when referring to a particular example of the noun (e.g., "a cup of water").
  26. Indefinite pronouns (e.g., "anyone," "anything," "everyone") are used to refer to individuals or objects in a broad, non-specific sense. They frequently need the use of a singular verb.
  27. Ellipsis is the removal of words that can be deduced from context. It is frequently used to prevent duplication or to make a phrase shorter.
  28. Run-on sentences and comma splices: When 2 autonomous clauses are brought together without adequate punctuation or conjunctions, comma splices as well as run-on sentences occur. These can be fixed by inserting a comma and a coordinating conjunction (e.g., "and," "but"), or by separating the sentences with a semicolon or period.
  29. Hyphens are utilized to connect two or more terms that make up a single notion (e.g., "well-known," "self-esteem").They are often used before nouns to generate compound modifiers (e.g., "a two-year-old child").
  30. Capitalization is used to denote the start of a sentence, proper nouns (for example, "Johnny," "Britain"), and the first term in a title.
  31. Write in Whole Sentences: To be complete, each statement requires two parts.
    • a subject (Kareena plays the flute.)
    • a verb (Kareena plays the flute.)
  32. A full sentence also referred to as an independent clause, may have a direct object based on the verb (Kayla plays the flute). It's a sentence fragment if the statement lacks a subject or a verb.
  33. Use conjunction or semicolon to connect ideas: Writing in simple sentences is perfectly right, but it is uninteresting. To form compound sentences, merge basic statements along with coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so).
    • Jessie rescued a cat and nicknamed it Dandy.
    • Our squad won the trophy, so we received a medal.

    You may also make it more intriguing by adding a semicolon rather than a conjunction.
    • Jessie rescued a cat; she named it Dandy.
    • Our squad won the trophy; we received a medal.
  34. Properly use commas: While a comma can be used with a coordinating conjunction, it cannot be used alone to join independent sentences. This is called as a comma splice, and it results in run-on sentences. Only if you are also utilizing a coordinating conjunction should you use a comma.
    • Jessie rescued a cat, she nicknamed it Dandy. (This is incorrect - comma splice)
    • Our squad won the competition, and we got a trophy. (This is correct - with coordinating conjunction)
  35. Make use of a Serial Comma Sometimes It Is Necessary: When listing elements in a sentence, commas are used to divide them. The final comma in the series is known as the Oxford comma, and it is not universally liked.
    • We bought some sheep, cattle, and ponies for our farmyard. (Oxford comma)
    • We purchased some sheep, cattle and ponies for our farm. (No Oxford comma)
  36. It is entirely to you and your style guide whether you utilise an Oxford comma on a frequent basis. Nonetheless, an Oxford comma should always be used when the statement would be confused without it.
    • The farm worker saw the sheep, Gil, and Jean. (An Oxford comma separates sheep and two guys named Gil and Pierre.)
    • The farm worker saw the sheep, Gil and Jean. (Without the Oxford comma, the sheep sound like Gil and Pierre.)
  37. Make Use of Active Voice
    In active voice statements, the subject appear prior to the verb. For instance, the subject of the active sentence "The bird ate the cake" is the bird. It carries out the verb's action (ate) on the sentence's object (the cake).
    Jessica washed the dishes. (Active - Jessica is the subject) Sarah walked the kitty. (Active - Sarah is the subject) Passive voice sentences either position the subject after the verb or leave it out entirely. "The cake was eaten by the bird" is a passive statement since the subject (the bird) follows the verb (was eaten). The object of the statement (the cake) ends up at the start of the sentence, making it difficult to read.
    The plates were washed by Jessica. (Passive - the subject comes after the verb) Kitty was walked by Sarah. (Passive - there is no subject)
    So clearly, writing in the passive voice misrepresents your words and obscures your meaning. Fortunately, changing from passive to active speech is simple.
  38. Utilize the Proper Verb Tense
    Utilizing a verb tense that does not correspond to your period of time is equivalent to stepping inside a broken time capsule. When did the action take place - today, tomorrow, or a century ago? Is it still going on? Check that you're using the proper tense for the historical period you're discussing.
    • Present tense - anything which occurs frequently or is happening right now (Maria and I eat dinner every Tuesday.)
    • Something that occurred before now is referred to as the past tense (Maria and I ate dinner )
    • Something that will occur in the future is expressed in the future tense (Maria and I will eat dinner.)

    You can employ the present, past, or future progressive tense when discussing a continuing action (with -ing verb endings).
    If you are discussing something that occurred across time, utilise perfect verb tenses (with the modal verb have or had).
  39. Keep Your Verb Tense Constant
    Another aspect of utilising the proper verb tense is consistency. If you begin your statement (or paragraph, or a novel) in one tense, make certain that remaining of your work is in that tense as well. If you're discussing distinct time periods, you can switch back and forth, but be cautious not to mix them together.
    • Incorrect - Stevens lost his bag. She goes to the ATM and withdraws some then he went to the office (The tense shifts from past to present, then back to past.)
    • Correct - Stevens lost his bag. She went to the ATM to get some money, then she went to the office. (The tense remains in the past.)
    • Correct - Stevens loses his bag. He goes to the ATM to get some money, then he goes to the office (The tense remains in the present.)
  40. Apostrophes should only be used for possessive nouns and contractions.
    Many individuals employ apostrophes in plural nouns which is ideally incorrect. Apostrophes show the possession of a singular or plural noun whenever letters are absent in a contraction. An apostrophe can only do these functions.
    • Correct - Reema can't wait until spring break. (Can't is an abbreviation for cannot.)
    • Correct - Did you lease the friend's scooter? (friend's is a possessive noun)
    • Correct - That is the authors' space. ('authors' is a possessive plural noun)
    • Incorrect - Merry Xmas from the Benson! (The word Bensons is plural, not possessive.)
    The only time when an apostrophe is employed to signify plurals is with plural lowercase letters (as in "Monitor your p's and q's"). Otherwise, avoid using them with plural nouns.
  41. Keep Your Homophones Clear
    It is common - and avoidable - to use too when you mean to. To keep your message clear, make sure you understand the distinction between popular homophones.
    • two vs. to vs. too
    • your vs. you're
    • there vs. they're vs their
    • accept vs except
    • then vs. than
    These aren't the only words in English that are frequently mispronounced. Choose which ones that perplex you the most and understand how to identify them apart.
  42. Properly use end punctuation: All nice things must end on a positive note, and your sentence is no exception. Check that you're using the appropriate end punctuation mark for your statement to get the desired tone.
    • Period- Pamila asked Sophie to the wedding. (serious or neutral tone)
    • Question mark - Pamila asked Sophie to the wedding? (In a perplexed tone)
    • Exclamation point - Pamila asked Sophie to the wedding! (Excited tone) Put your ending punctuation (also known as terminal punctuation) within the quotation marks if your phrase ends in a quote or conversation.
  43. Direct and indirect objects: Direct objects get the verb's action, but indirect objects convey who or what the action is conducted for. The prepositions "to" or "for" are frequently used to introduce indirect objects (e.g., "Lina gave the novel to me").
  44. Placement of adverbs: Adverbs alter verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They are frequently used before the verb (for example, "She swiftly fled"), but they can also be used at the start or conclusion of a phrase.
  45. Interjections are words or phrases that are employed to describe powerful sensations or emotions (e.g., "Wow," "Ouch"). They are often separated from the body of the sentence using an exclamation mark or a comma.

Keep practicing and keep mastering

That's all there is to it - you've learned grammar! Keep brushing up on these rules to have a better understanding.

Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now


Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Trending Technologies

B.Tech / MCA