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What is the full form of GMP

GMP: Good Manufacturing Practices

Good Manufacturing Practices, or GMP, is a system made up of steps, instructions, and paperwork that guarantees manufacturing commodities like food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals are regularly produced and monitored following predetermined quality standards. GMP implementation can reduce losses and waste while preventing recalls, seizures, fines, and jail time. Overall, it guards against harmful food safety incidents for the business and the customer.

Every step of the manufacturing process is covered by GMPs to prevent hazards that could have disastrous and adverse effects on the products, such as contamination, adulteration, and mislabelling. The following are some point that GMP guidelines might affect in terms of product quality and safety:

  • Validation and qualification
  • Personnel
  • Building and facilities
  • Equipment
  • Raw materials
  • Sanitation and hygiene
  • Complaints
  • Documentation and recordkeeping
GMP full form

Main Components of Good Manufacturing Practice

Emphasizing the following the five P's of GMP assist in adhering to rigid guidelines throughout the production process.

1. People

Every employee must follow precisely the rules and procedures for manufacture. To properly comprehend their duties and responsibilities, all workers must complete current GMP training. Enhancing their performance helps them become more competent, productive, and effective. Before being distribution of product to all customers, all products must undergo ongoing testing, comparison, and quality assurance. At every manufacturing stage, manufacturers should ensure that raw resources, such as goods, have precise specifications. The standard procedure must be followed for testing, allocating, and packing sample products.

2. Process

Process should be given to all personnel and documented. Regular evaluations should be undertaken to ensure everyone is following the established procedures and upholding the necessary organizational standards.

3. Procedures

A set of instructions for carrying out a crucial process or component of a strategy to get a consistent result is known as a procedure. It needs to be explained to every employee and applied consistently. Any variation from the established method must be reported immediately and investigated.

4. Premises

To prevent cross-contamination, accidents, or even fatalities, premises should always encourage cleanliness. To reduce the risk of equipment failure, all equipment should be put or maintained appropriately and calibrated regularly to guarantee they are fit for the goal of delivering consistent results.

5. 10 Principles of GMP

  1. Establish standardized operational procedures (SOPs)
  2. Implement and enforce SOPs and work instructions
  3. Record processes and procedures
  4. Examine the efficiency of SOPs
  5. Create and use functional systems
  6. Maintain infrastructure, tools, and systems
  7. Help employees become more job-competent
  8. Avoid contamination by maintaining cleanliness
  9. Put quality first and include it into the workflow
  10. Consistently carry out GMP audits


Manufacturers must follow GMP laws to control the production, verification, and validation of produced goods and guarantee their efficacy and safety for market distribution.

For instance, the US FDA enforces GMP through Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP), which apply to a broader range of industries, including those producing food, medical devices, cosmetics, and prescription medications. The FDA performs facility inspections to determine if a manufacturing company complies with CGMP rules. FDA recalls all items if any severe breaches are discovered during the examination, which is troublesome for manufacturers in terms of both revenue and operational efficiency.

The standard of manufactured goods is strictly monitored since it might hurt consumers and environmental health. A manufactured product that does not adhere to GMP requirements might have deadly effects on customers due to issues with cleanliness, temperature control, cross-contamination, and adulteration at any stage of the production process.


GMP standards are created to increase the safety of manufactured items, particularly pharmaceutical products, and to guarantee that customers receive the best available products. Following GMP guidelines improves manufacturing organizations' reputation while lowering the number of batches, recalls and consumer complaints. The following four actions can help you uphold GMP standards:

1. A good team

Have a group of knowledgeable personnel that will enhance current manufacturing processes and adhere to GMP. Members will review quality operations to find issues and create suitable corrective actions. The team's duties will also include routinely monitoring tools, machinery, procedures, and employee abilities.

2. Validation

Instruments, procedures, and activities often used or performed are demonstrated in writing as part of the validation process.

3. Procedure verification

Validation of cleaning and sanitation, computer systems, and analytical methods.

4. Compliance Education

The best approach to guarantee adherence to GMP requirements is through offering compliance training to personnel. Improve processes or systems to keep standards GMP-compliant while assisting personnel in better understanding GMP. To reduce errors and ensure compliance, all staff should get training in recordkeeping, hygiene, correct equipment handling, labelling, and SOPs.

Guidelines and Basic Concepts of GMP

An effective and good manufacturing process may be implemented with the help of GMP guidelines, principles that guarantee quality are ingrained throughout the business. GMP rules are typically strict, and each country has its own rules that must adhere to its own GMP principles and laws. All rules are made from the fundamental idea and regulations that are:

1. Quality control

Quality management has a goal to guarantee that manufactured product are suitable and perfect for human use, conform to specifications, and do not endanger consumers through insufficient safety, quality. Quality assurance and good manufacturing processes should be fully executed to meet this quality aim.

Some guidelines for good manufacturing practice are-

Good manufacturing practice is linked up with the production and quality control. It seeks to less down the production-related hazards that are very difficult to avoid. According to WHO's Good Manufacturing Practices for pharmaceuticals companies are given below:-

  1. To prepare medicines of the required quality and comply with their specifications and marketing authorization, all manufacturing processes should be clearly defined, systematically reviewed and validate by the experts. The most important steps in manufacturing processes and significant changes to the process must also be validated by the experts.
  2. Instructions and procedures are written in an instructional and very clear form in a clearly understandable language, specifically applicable to the facilities provided.
  3. Workers and operators must be trained in a very well manner to carry out procedures correctly.
  4. Appropriate space and premises, appropriate services and equipment, appropriate materials, and labels, and approved procedures are all provided as necessary facilities for GMP.
  5. During production, all records must be kept showing that all the processes outlined in the procedures and instructions were followed by the product's quantity and quality were as expected.

2. Quality assurance

Good Manufacturing Practice has a quality control component emphasizing sampling, specification, and testing of the sample. It shows the documentation, setup and release procedures to ensure that products pass all the necessary tests before being launched for sale or supply for users.

3. Effective risk management

Assessment of risks that may impact product quality is done systematically through quality risk management.

4. Hygiene and cleanliness

In every step of the production, sanitation and hygiene are very much important. It includes all the things that could contaminate a product, including workers, the environment, tools, and production supplies.

Structure and Surrounding Properties

As a general rule, the location of the premises should be suitable for its activities and free from hazards that could result in material or product contamination. Additionally, the site should be very simple to keep clean and maintain to reduce operational errors.


Equipment should be constructed, situated, and maintained consistent with its intended purpose, just like the premises. It should be cleaned and preserved by protocols. It should remove or marked as defective if there is problem.

Raw material

All raw materials which are being used in production should be stored very carefully. A suitable and proper stock management system should be used in place to guarantee that all incoming materials are accurate and of good quality.


The individuals carrying out GMP compliance are very important for its success. For this reason, all employees and workers must be trained and qualified to perform their jobs. They should be educated on the GMP tenets and given proper training, cleanliness tips, and another required knowledge.


Validate if processes and procedures can continually generate very good and high-quality goods by evaluating whether systems, facilities, and equipment are suitable for and ready for their intended application. Verifying important manufacturing procedures is necessary to guarantee that high product quality standards are consistently met.

The location, utilities, machinery, and procedures have been constructed in compliance with GMP standards. A particular process will continuously result in a product meeting and its predetermined specifications and quality attributes; the premises, and equipment have been built and installed in compliance with their design specifications (installation qualification known as IQ); and the beliefs, supporting utilities, and equipment operate in compliance with their design specifications (operational qualification known as OQ).

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