How to Calculate GPA
GPA stands for "Grade Point Average." It is a raw score average based on the letter grades for a specific term or an academic year at an institution. Generally, an official transcript will demonstrate both the semester or quarter averages for each term and overall average at the bottom side.
In GPA, each letter grade is allotted a numerical value lies between 0-4 or 5 points, relying on an institutional scale. Various schools/institutions also acknowledge aggregate GPAs, which demonstrates an average GPA over specific years of schooling, when you are going to apply for higher education. Unfortunately, we can say that there is no universal procedure to calculate GPA since the method varies from one country to another and by the institution. Some institution gives additional points for honors classes or weighted scores by units.
However, when you are going to calculate GPA, You will necessarily need to find your grading scale, and convert each letter grade with corresponding numerical value within the scale. After now, you need to calculate the average of those values to get your current GPA.
We can calculate the GPA by four methods which are given below:
By using a simple GPA calculation
Find the grading scale:
The universal grading scale used by schools in the U.S is a 4 point - point scale. In this scale, each grade has a specific value, a grade of A is equivalent to 4 points, a grade of b is equal to 3 points, a grade of c is equivalent to 2 points, a grade value of d is equivalent to 1 point, and a grade of f is equal to 0 points. It is known as an unweighted grade point average. On the other hand, some schools use the weighted GPA, which assigns 5 points for more severe classes. For example, honors, AP (Advanced Placement), and IB (International Baccalaureate). The students who attend the 5- point classes may end up with GPAs above a 4.0.
Some schools utilize the plus-minus grading scale to calculate the GPA, that values of -minus scale varies from +.3 to -.3. For example, a student who got B+ is worth 3.3 points, whereas a student who got B- is worth 2.7 points.
If you are not sure what your school uses the grading scale for GPA calculation, you need to ask your teacher or an administrator.
Collect recent grades:
If you are going to calculate the GPA, you need to collect the most recent grade formats by asking your administrator or teacher so that you might be able to figure out what grades you have received in your exam by going back over your previous report cards.
Here, you need to calculate only the final grades for each of your results, because your class grades, mid-semester report card won't be taken into consideration. Only the last semester, term, and quarter factor are considered when you are calculating a GPA.
Write down the point value for each grade:
Once you collect the recent grade from your school, you need to record the exact value next to each grade by using the 4-point scale method. So, if anyone has B+ grade in a class, record a 3.3, if anyone has got B- grade, you need to record 2.7 points.
Sum-up all the values of your grades:
Once you record the scores for your grades, you need to sum the values up. So that we can say that if anyone received B+ in maths subject, A- in Biology, and B- in English. Afterward, you need to add up the total point in the given way: 3.3+3.7+2.7=9.7.
Divide the final number by the number of classes:
Once you have sum-up all the values of your grade that is 9.7 on a 4- point scale for three classes, you will find the GPA by using the given equation: 9.9/3 = 3.2. Finally, you have calculated the GPA that is equal to 3.2.
Finding a GPA with weighted credit hours
Calculate the number of credits:
If we consider some schools or college subjects, each subject has several credit hours. Credit hours refer to unit schools, which are used to calculate the work load. It is based on the way of guidelines or instructions of any institution, the number of hours spent inside the class, and a number of hours spent to study outside the classroom. Here, you need to calculate the number of credit hours assigned to an individual course you are taking. You can see this in the school catalog or on your transcripts.
Most of the schools provide three-credit-hour courses, and some colleges provide four credit hour courses.
If you can't find the credit hours for each course, you need to talk to your administration immediately.
Select the exact scale value for each letter grade:
After now, you need to use the universal 4- point GPA scale to select the values. For example, assign A equals 4 points, B equals 3 points, C equals 2 points, D equals 1 point, and F equals 0 points.
There is a possibility that your school allots 5 points for advanced level classes, such as International Baccalaureate (IB) or Advanced Placement (AP), so you have to use a weighted GPA scale for GPA calculation.
Here, you need to follow the plus-minus procedure; that is, you need to add .3 for each plus value and subtract .3 for each minus value. If you got a B+ grade in your class, you need to mark it as 3.3. So, match each letter grade with their appropriate scale value and write it down to the grade. For Example, A- = 3.7, B+ = 3.3, B- = 2.7.
Find out the weighted Scores:
If you are going to calculate GPA, you need to do the basics of maths to calculate the various values for the scores that are required to calculate the overall GPA.
If you are going to calculate grade points, you need to multiply each scale value grade by the number of credit hours. For example, if you made an A in a four-credit hour class, you need to multiply the exact value of A, which is three by four credit hours, that gives you 16-grade points for that class.
Sum-up all the weighted grade points for all your classes together to find the total grade points.
Calculate the total weighted credits:
Once you find the weighted score, you need to sum up the number of credit hours you have taken in entire to make the full credit. If you were attended three classes that were four credit hours each, you would get a total of 12 credit hours.
Divide the grade points total by the credit hours total:
Let's understand this with an example if you have a total of 40.5-grade points in a total of 20.5 credit hours. You need to solve the following math equation, 40.5/20.5 = 1.97. So, your credit hour- weighted GPA is 1.97.
Calculating GPA by using Excel:
You also have an option to calculate GPA through an Excel sheet.
Set the Initial Columns:
If you want to calculate GPA via excel, you need to set up the first columns. In the first column (you may say A), write the names or numbers of the subjects you are taking and in column second (you may say B) enter the letter grades.
Put the numerical value of the grades:
Once you fill the column A and column B, you need to input the numerical scale value of the grades in column C. Before completing this step. You will have to decide either your school uses a weighted GPA scale or an Unweighted GPA scale.
The universal 4-point GPA scale is as follows (Shown in the given table):
If your school follows a weighted GPA scale, they assign 5-points for advanced level classes. So, to ensure your points, you need to contact your administration for this information. You can also see this on your final report card.
Use the plus-minus procedure to evaluate the value of each grade; it means you need to add .3 for plus value or subtract .3 for minus values. For example, if you get a C+ grade in the exam, it means your grade point is equivalent to 2.3. Similarly for B+ = 3.3, C- = 1.7.
Type an equals to sign in the first row of column D:
Once you put the value of the grades in column c, you need to type equals to sign (=) in the first row of the column D. All the mathematical equations initiate with an equals to sign on the excel sheet, so you need to use this every time you do a new mathematical calculation.
Write the letters SUM next to the equals to sign:
Once you put equals to sign, you need to type the letters SUM next to the equivalents to sign located at the first row of column D. This will execute your data to the program that will be performing a calculation task and add the equation.
Fill in your equation:
After now, you need to use the basic format to sum-up all the grade values.
General format for addition:
C1 = It is the cell number of the first grade in column(C= Column; 1- Row)
C6 = = It is the cell number of the sixth grade in column(C= Column; 6- Row)
The given equation you will use to calculate the GPA will be determined by how many grade points you have.
The number which is located at the right side of the corner represents the cell number of the final grade on the list.
The number which is used after the slash represents the total number of courses which you are going to calculate. In this given case, we have considered six courses. If you have more than six courses, you can easily replace 6 with your desired number of courses. The procedure is the same for all.
Once you applied the equation for calculating the given sum, you need to press the Enter button. If you press the enter key, you will get a single-digit number in column D, which is the final solution.
Evaluating percentage Based GPA:
Some schools often use a percentage based procedure to evaluate the GPA instead of using a point scale (4 or 4.33). We have discussed below how to find the percentage-based GPA in detail.
Know the types of classes you have joined:
Some classes have weights that alter the "strength" of the class. If we consider a regular class or on-level class, it is multiplied by one or left alone. Similarly, A PAP (Pre- Advanced Placements) is multiplied by 1.05. An Advanced Placement is multiplied by 1.1.
Let's understand this concept with an example, a person P has five classes, and he has got different grades in each subject, which is given in the table below:
Multiply the grades as per their weight:
The grade value of PAP Literature is 83, which gets multiply by 1.05 for 87.1% AJ. Here, AJ stands for Adjusted. We consider chemistry and Track as a regular class, so they are left at their grades, 97 and 86, respectively. The grade value of PAP Pharmaceuticals Training is 85, multiplied by 1.05 we get 89.2% AJ, and if we consider AP world Civilizations, the grade value 98 gets multiply by 1.1 for a 107.08% AJ.
Find the mean of the grade values:
The formula to calculate the mean of the grade values is very simple,
g = grade
In other words, add all the grades value and divide by the total number of grades by no of classes.
So, 87.1+97+86+89.2+107.08=466.38/5=93.276. So, after calculation, Person p has a 93.2 or 94 GPA percent. If the number looks too high or too low, you need to re-check your mathematical calculation and make sure you have calculated correctly.