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Hygiene Definition

Every action you perform to keep things clean and healthy is known as hygiene. The word "hygiene" is derived from the Greek deity of sanitation, hygiene, and good health. Actions and behaviors that help to maintain health and prevent the spread of disease are referred to as hygiene.

Hygiene Definition

Many individuals think that "hygiene" and "cleanliness" are the same, but actually, both are different terms. Hygiene generally includes actions that stop the spread of diseases, and cleaning includes activities that remove harmful germs, dirt, and soil.

Types of Hygiene

1. Personal Hygiene

Hygiene Definition

Personal hygiene refers to actions taken by a person to protect their physical health and wellness through cleanliness.

Types of Personal Hygiene:

1. Hand Washing

The mouth, nose, eyes, and ears are the basic entry points for germs from your hands. One of the best methods to prevent you and your family from getting sick is to wash your hands frequently.

Tips for Wash Your Hands:

  1. Wash your hands after using the restroom.
  2. Wash your hands before, during, and after food preparation.
  3. Wash your hands after touching garbage or dirty items.
  4. Before eating, wash your hands.
  5. Wash your hands before and after treating a cut or wound.
  6. After sniffling, coughing, or sneezing, wash your hands.
  7. Wash your hands while changing diapers or cleaning up a kid who has used the restroom.

3. Oral Hygiene

Gum disease and cavities can be avoided with proper dental and gum hygiene. Brush for two minutes twice every day. Brush as soon as you wake up and before you go to sleep. Maintain regular oral hygiene to get rid of plaque.

Use dental floss, a unique brush, a wooden pick, or any other item to clean your teeth. You can also use a floss threader, floss holder, or water flosser. Use fluoridated water to keep your teeth healthy. It protects your teeth throughout the day if you drink water with the correct quantity of fluoride.

Brushing Tips:

  1. Use fluoride toothpaste. Fluoride prevents tooth decay (cavities).
  2. To clean germs between the gums and teeth, angle the bristles toward the gumline.
  3. Brush softly with small, circular motions.
  4. Brush the tooth from top to bottom.

These steps can help to stop tooth decay and remove bacteria and germs between tooth gaps.

3. Sickness Hygiene

You must take precautions to avoid infecting others if you don't feel well. As you cough or sneeze, cover your mouth and nose to prevent the transmission of dangerous respiratory viruses, including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Put your used, dirty tissues in the garbage.

4. Nail Hygiene

Cleaning and cutting your fingernails, which can store dirt and bacteria, is important to maintaining good hand hygiene. Longer fingernails can hold more dirt and bacteria than shorter ones due to their length. Infections of the fingernails or toenails are frequently identified by swelling of the nearby skin, pain, or thickness of the nail. These infections sometimes require medical treatment.

Nail Hygiene Tips:

  1. Keep your nails short and cut them frequently.
  2. Clean the nails underneath with soap and water when you wash your hands.
  3. Clean the nail instruments before cutting nails.
  4. Do not chew or bit your nails.
  5. Do not cut cuticles since they act as barriers to keep infection away.

5. Shower Hygiene

Showering with soap can help to remove oils, germs, & dead cells. Baths, steam rooms, and other bathing practices can boost immunity, ease muscle, and joint pain, reduce swelling, promote blood flow, and reduce tiredness. It removes bacteria and other germs that cause rashes and other skin issues.

Also, wash your hair twice a week. Shampooing your hair and scalp removes accumulated skin cells and guards against greasy residues that could irritate your skin. Use shampoo and running water to remove dirt, oil, and undesirable residue from your head.

Hair Hygiene Tips:

  1. To remove the accumulation, exfoliate the scalp.
  2. Choose a shampoo and conditioner suitable for your hair type.
  3. Wash your hair frequently.
  4. To prevent tangles, brush your hair frequently.

6. Menstrual Hygiene

Proper menstrual hygiene habits will help you avoid infections, minimize odors, and stay comfortable. To absorb or collect blood during your period, you can use a variety of menstruation goods, such as menstrual cups, sanitary pads, tampons, menstrual discs, and period underwear.

Instruction to Used Menstruation Goods:

Follow the below instructions while using menstruation goods:

  1. Before using a menstruation product, wash your hands.
  2. Cover the used disposable menstrual items in toilet tissue before throwing them in the garbage.
  3. Never throw off menstrual products in the toilet.
  4. If you have heavy menstruation, change sanitary pads regularly.
  5. Tampons should be replaced after every 4 to 8 hours.
  6. Clean the cups after each use. After your period is finished, sanitize menstrual cups by giving them a good rinse and then putting them in hot water for one to two minutes.

Menstrual Hygiene Tips:

  1. Put on breathable, lightweight clothing.
  2. Frequently change your menstruation products.
  3. Use odorless pads and tampons. Skin irritation and natural pH level changes might happen from scented hygiene products.
  4. Consume enough liquids. It can aid in cleansing your urinary system and aid in the prevention of infections like vaginal candidiasis.

3. Food Hygiene

Hygiene Definition

Food hygiene refers to the activities performed to store and prepare food safely for human consumption. Food hygiene aims to stop food from being contaminated & prevent food from causing food poisoning.

Contaminated food is among the major threats to the health of the population. It is the main reason for the spread of disease. Food stored for a long time may contain infections or hazardous chemicals. The foods that are eaten raw, such as fruits and vegetables, are easily contaminated by flies, dirty hands, and unclean water. Inadequately cooked food could cause chemical poisoning. For example, incorrectly cooked and crushed cassava leaves may have deadly cyanide levels.

Tips for Food Hygiene:

  1. Wash your hands, food, counters, and cooking equipment frequently.
  2. Keep raw poultry, seafood, meat, and eggs away from other foods.
  3. Use a separate cutting board or plate for raw foods.
  4. Foods need to heat up as germs are killed by heat.

3. Environmental Hygiene

Hygiene Definition

Environmental hygiene aims to establish secure environments to stop the disease. Environmental hygiene includes cleaning, pest control, de-infestation, and fumigation procedures. Environmental hygiene includes the safe and proper management of sharps, blood, body fluid spills, and garbage.

The health of the present and future generations is protected through environmental hygiene. Environmental hygiene's purpose is to decrease the infectious agents that might be present on surfaces and to reduce the chance of germs spreading from one person to another.

4. Domestic Hygiene

Hygiene Definition

The tasks performed to maintain the cleanliness of a home are considered domestic hygiene activities. These tasks include cleaning the toilet, washing the clothes, bedding, and washing cooking equipment and dishes after meals. Cleaning the house every day is essential to keeping your home healthy.

If the house and household items are not cleaned regularly, moisture and dirt accumulate, making a suitable environment for breeding and growing germs, parasites, and vectors. Domestic hygiene also includes using soap, appropriate ventilation, fresh air, cleanliness in food storage, correct trash disposal, and keeping pests, vermin, and insects out of the home.

Benefits of Hygiene

You come into contact with millions of external viruses and bacteria every day. They might stay on your body for a while, sometimes making you ill. Keeping yourself clean can help you to avoid getting sick. The benefits of hygiene are explained here:

1. Health Benefits

Maintaining a healthy body is crucial for preventing infection. The transmission of germs from one person to another and from one area of your body to another is avoided by washing your hands.

2. Social Benefits

Body cleanliness and good personal hygiene can reduce breath and sweat odor. It improves an individual's physical appearance and enhances their impression.

3. Preventive Benefits

It is claimed that prevention is always better than treatment. The spread of epidemic diseases can be stopped by practicing good personal and social hygiene. Due to hygiene, the enormous cost of treating diseases can be avoided.

Harmful Effect of Poor Hygiene

Poor personal hygiene practices can have mild negative effects, such as body odor and oily skin. It might also cause severe, dangerous issues. The illnesses caused by poor personal hygiene are mentioned below:

1. Body Lice

Body lice infestation is frequently transferred through direct personal contact. Severe itching, rashes, and red lumps on the skin are signs of body lice.

2. Scabies

It is a serious skin condition caused by bad hygiene. It happens if an individual lives near a person with scabies mites or when individuals live in crowded, filthy surroundings. Symptoms of scabies include itching, rashes, sores, and thick bumps on the skin.

3. Trachoma

Trachoma is easily transmitted by direct human contact. The signs of trachoma are mild itchiness in the eyelids and eyes, eyelid swelling, photophobia, pain, and vision loss.

4. Lymphatic-Filariasis

Tiny, thread-like worms cause a parasitic condition called lymphatic-filariasis. Inflammation, edema, lymphedema, and hydrocele are signs of lymphatic-filariasis.

5. Swimmer's Ear

Swimmer's ear is a bacterial infection caused by water left in the outer canal of the ear for a long time, creating a moist environment for bacteria to flourish.

Symptoms of Swimmer's Ear

  • Pain in the ear.
  • Itching inside the ear.
  • Drainage from the ear.
  • Redness.
  • Swelling inside the ear.

6. Pinworm

A tiny, thin, white roundworm known as Enterobius vermicularis causes pinworm infection. It is easily transmitted from a pinworm-infectious person to his kids and family members.

7. Ringworm

Ringworm is a type of skin infection. It can cause a circular rash that is typically red and itchy, hence the name "ringworm." The fungus that causes ringworm infection can reside on surfaces, clothing, bedding, towels, and other household items. The medical word for it is" dermatophytosis" or "tinea."

FAQs on Hygiene

1. What are the Four Categories of Hygiene?


  1. Environmental hygiene.
  2. Personal hygiene.
  3. Food hygiene.
  4. Domestic hygiene.

2. List out the Hygiene products.


Hygiene products are things that are used to clean our things and ourselves.

  • Most essential personal hygiene items include hand sanitizer, toothpaste, toothbrushes, dental floss, deodorant, shaving equipment, baby wipes, facial cleaning cloths, soap, shampoo, toilet paper, insect repellent, sunblock, medicated body powder, lotion or lip balm, a manicure set, scissors, razors, disposable gloves, sawdust, and a nail cutter.
  • Products for feminine hygiene include menstrual cups, sponges, sanitary napkins, tampons, and cloth pads for periods.
  • Products used for domestic hygiene include laundry detergent, buckets, glass cleaners, toilet cleaners, wood cleaners, dish tabs, dustpans, sponges and cloths, brooms, washing up liquid, vacuum, grout brushes, polish, and sprays, etc.

3. What are the advantages of personal hygiene?


  1. It prevents the person from infections and diseases that might deteriorate their immune system.
  2. It stops you from infecting your family members and the people you connect with daily.
  3. It aids in maintaining the pH levels of the skin, resulting in healthy and radiant skin.
  4. It helps avoid spreading intestinal worms, schistosomiasis, trachoma, and neglected tropical diseases.
  5. It allows others to trust you and assign you duties, such as planning a secure and sanitary event for all attendees.

4. What are the advantages of environmental hygiene?


  1. A safe, clean, cool, and healthy lifestyle may be achieved by environmental hygiene.
  2. It keeps people away from illnesses caused by unhealthful environments.
  3. Make a pollution-free environment.

5. What are the four Cs of food hygiene?


  1. Cleaning
  2. Cross-contamination
  3. Cooking
  4. Chilling

6. What is the difference between community hygiene and domestic hygiene?


Domestic hygiene Community hygiene
1. The tasks performed to maintain the cleanliness of a home are considered domestic hygiene activities. Domestic hygiene is related to personal hygiene. 1. The collective effort taken by a group of people to improve health and avoid disease is known as community hygiene.
2. Domestic hygiene depends on a single person. 2. Community hygiene depends on all the people present in the community. So the population of a community is an important factor in community hygiene.
3. Environmental hygiene is also an element of domestic hygiene. 3. A community will become isolated from others if sanitary standards are maintained improperly.

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