What is the full form of ILO
ILO: International Labour Organization
ILO stands for International Labour Organization. The International Labour Organization (ILO), a United Nations agency, seeks to increase social and economic justice by developing global labour standards. It employs 3,381 people in 107 countries, 1,698 working on technical cooperation projects and programmes. The ILO's labour standards guarantee equitable, secure, and dignified employment opportunities for all people worldwide.
There are 189 accords and treaties that outline them. The ILO has significantly influenced global labour law. This framework is unique within the UN system. The three major bodies of the ILO uphold this framework:
Guy Ryder of the United Kingdom, the secretariat's Director-General, was chosen by the governing body in 2012 and is in charge of it. A universal labour guarantee, social security coverage from birth to old age, and the right to lifelong learning are among the ten recommendations of the global commission on the future of work created by the organization in 2019.
The International Labour Organization's executive body is called the Governing Body. It selects the Director-General, requests information on labour issues from the member nations, creates commissions of inquiry, sets the agenda for the International Labour Conference, approves the Organization's draught programme and budget for submission to the conference, and decides ILO policy.
The members representing the Employer and Worker are chosen on an individual basis. In 2020, India will preside over the International Labour Organization's Governing Body. Director-General Gilbert Fossoun Houngbo was chosen to lead the ILO on March 25, 2022. He will be the first Director-General of the Organization.
Worldwide Labour Conference
The ILO's annual International Labour Conference, which includes conventions and recommendations, is held in Geneva annually to establish the Organization's general policy.
The Conference, sometimes known as the "international parliament of labour," elects the Governing Body and makes decisions regarding the ILO's overall strategy, work schedule, and financial plan.
A delegation comprising two government delegates, an employer representative, a labour delegate, and their respective advisors represents each member state. Regardless of the number of people in the delegate's member State, everyone has the right to one individual vote, and each voice is treated equally.
Usually, the representatives of the employers and the employees vote in unison. Each delegate has equal rights, and voting is not mandatory in blocs. Delegates enjoy the same freedoms as citizens to speak their minds and vote whichever they like. Despite the diversity of opinions, judgments can nonetheless be adopted by an overwhelming majority or unanimously.
The Conference also includes participation from heads of state and prime ministers. Governmental and non-governmental international groups are also present, but only as spectators. The voting body has chosen the officers at the first meeting, which took place on May 20, 2021, in Geneva. The other sittings are scheduled for June, November, and December.
The core group's members were acquainted through earlier private professional and ideological networks where they shared information, stories, and social policy theories. The concept of a "makeable society" was a critical driving force behind the ILO architects' social engineering during the post-World War I euphoria. International labour law emerged as a new field and quickly established itself as an effective tool for implementing social reforms.
The 1919 Paris Peace Conference showed the ILO's ability to balance idealism and pragmatism by altering the founding members' utopian ambitions of social justice and the right to decent employment. The international labour movement advocated a comprehensive protection policy for the working classes during the First World War in exchange for labour support. During and immediately after World War I, several nations focused on post-war reconstruction and the defence of labour unions.
The Whitley Commission, a branch of the Reconstruction Commission, advocated for establishing "industrial councils" on a global scale in its Final Report from July 1918. In the book Labour and the New Social Order, the British Labour Party published its reconstruction plan. The third Inter-Allied Labour and Socialist Conference, which included representatives from Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Italy, published a report in February 1918 that called for establishing an international organization to protect labour rights, an end to covert diplomacy, and other objectives.
Additional Details of International Labour Organization Member Nations
One hundred eighty-seven countries are members of the ILO. The ILO has 186 of the United Nations. 193 member states and the Cook Islands as members. North Korea, Micronesia, Monaco, Bhutan, Liechtenstein, Andorra, and Liechtenstein are all UN members but not ILO members. According to the ILO constitution, any UN member may join the Organization.
A country must inform the director-general that it recognizes all of the ILO constitution's duties before it may enter. A non-member state, The Cook Islands, joined in June 2015. When the ILO's new constitution went into force following World War II, members of the ILO under the League of Nations were automatically admitted.
Rank within the UN
The ILO is one of the United Nations (UN) specialized agencies. Conventions with a normative function are on the list of the International Labour Organization. The ILO had ratified 189 conventions as of July 2018. These conventions enter into force if a sufficient number of governments approve them.
Regardless of ratification, ILO treaties are regarded as global labour standards. It affects when it imposes a duty on ratifying countries to implement its terms. Each year, the Committee on the Application of Rules of the International Labour Conference looks into many alleged violations of international labour norms. Governments must provide reports outlining how they uphold the requirements of the treaties they have ratified. Conventions that member states have not approved are equivalent to suggestions in terms of legal authority.
This proclamation contains the following four core principles:
According to the ILO, its members are responsible for advancing the full observance of these principles, as expressed in the ILO conventions. Most member states have ratified the ILO conventions representing the core principles. By altering or adding provisions on various topics, protocols are used to make routines more flexible or to augment obligations. Despite being international treaties, protocols always go back to the convention and do not stand alone. It is possible to ratify protocols, just like conventions.
Recommendations are not ratifiable and do not have the same legal status as conventions. Conventions and offers may be enacted concurrently to add to or expand upon the latter's provisions. Other times, recommendations might be implemented separately and discuss subjects unrelated to specific conventions.
The ILO developed the Future of Work Initiative to understand better the transformations that occur in the workplace and, as a result, find solutions to these difficulties. The effort began in 2016 by gathering the perspectives of government representatives, employees, employers, academics, and other vital personalities worldwide. Around 110 countries engaged in regional and national dialogues.
"Four centenary conversations: work and society, decent jobs for all, work organization and production, and work governance" is how they categorize these topics.
The Global Commission on the Future of Work was established in 2017 and focused on the same "four centenary discussions" as part of the second phase.
A report on the 2019 Centenary International Labour Conference has been published. The ILO also examined the impact of technology disruptions on global employment. The agency was concerned about the worldwide economic and health implications of technologies such as industrial and process automation, artificial intelligence (AI), Robots, and robotic process automation on human labour. So this was increasingly being discussed by critics, albeit in vastly disparate ways. Among the prominent beliefs was that technology would reduce work, render workers obsolete, or end employment by substituting human labour. The other side of the coin was technical innovation and abundant economic growth opportunities.
Technology has revolutionized how we think, build, and deploy system solutions in the current day, but there are still risks to humans. A clear explanation of these disruptions was provided by Paul Schulte (Director of the Education and Information Division and Co-Manager of the Nanotechnology Research Center, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control), along with D. P. Sharma (International Consultant, Information Technology and Scientist), warned that if appropriate, prompt action is not taken, it will get worse than it has ever been.
They claimed that to compete effectively, the human generation must reinvent itself in capacity, speed, precision, and honesty. Machines appear to be a threat to this age and are more honest than human labourers. The only way to survive is to face the challenge of "Human vs Machine" since science and technology have no reverse gear.
The ILO has also investigated how shifting to a green economy will affect employment. It concluded that if the appropriate policies are implemented, a transformation to a greener economy may generate 24 million new works globally by 2030. Furthermore, suppose the transition to a green economy does not occur. In that event, heat stress could cause us to lose 72 million full-time jobs by 2030, and rising temperatures would result in fewer hours of employment, especially in agriculture.