## Karnaugh Map(K-Map) methodThe Just like the truth table, a K-map contains all the possible values of input variables and their corresponding output values. However, in K-map, the values are stored in cells of the array. In each cell, a binary value of each input variable is stored. The K-map method is used for expressions containing 2, 3, 4, and 5 variables. For a higher number of variables, there is another method used for simplification called the Quine-McClusky method. In K-map, the number of cells is similar to the total number of variable input combinations. For example, if the number of variables is three, the number of cells is 2 - First, we find the K-map as per the number of variables.
- Find the maxterm and minterm in the given expression.
- Fill cells of K-map for SOP with 1 respective to the minterms.
- Fill cells of the block for POS with 0 respective to the maxterm.
- Next, we create rectangular groups that contain total terms in the power of two like 2, 4, 8, … and try to cover as many elements as we can in one group.
- With the help of these groups, we find the product terms and sum them up for the SOP form.
## 2 Variable K-mapThere is a total of 4 variables in a 2-variable K-map. There are two variables in the 2-variable K-map. The following figure shows the structure of the 2-variable K-map: - In the above figure, there is only one possibility of grouping four adjacent minterms.
- The possible combinations of grouping 2 adjacent minterms are {(m
_{0}, m_{1}), (m_{2}, m_{3}), (m_{0}, m_{2}) and (m_{1}, m_{3})}.
## 3-variable K-mapThe 3-variable K-map is represented as an array of eight cells. In this case, we used A, B, and C for the variable. We can use any letter for the names of the variables. The binary values of variables A and B are along the left side, and the values of C are across the top. The value of the given cell is the binary values of A and B at left side in the same row combined with the value of C at the top in the same column. For example, the cell in the upper left corner has a binary value of 000, and the cell in the lower right corner has a binary value of 101. ## The 4-Variable Karnaugh MapThe 4-variable K-map is represented as an array of 16 cells. Binary values of A and B are along the left side, and the values of C and D are across the top. The value of the given cell is the binary values of A and B at left side in the same row combined with the binary values of C and D at the top in the same column. For example, the cell in the upper right corner has a binary value of 0010, and the cell in the lower right corner has a binary value of 1010 ## 5-variable K-mapWith the help of the 32- cell K-map, the boolean expression with 5 variables can be simplified. For constructing a 5-variable K-map, we use two 4-variable K-maps. The cell adjacencies within each of the 4- variable maps for the 5-variable map are similar to the 4- variable map. A K-map for five variables (PQRST) can be constructed using two 4-variable maps. Each map contains 16 cells with all combinations of variables Q, R, S, and T. One map is for P = 0, and the other is for P = 1). |

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