A cancer of blood-forming cells, including bone marrow, is known as Leukemia. Although Leukemia often starts in white blood cells, other blood cell types can also develop Leukemia. The key distinctions between different forms of Leukemia are whether they are acute (fast-growing) or chronic (slow-growing) and whether they originate in lymphoid or myeloid cells. The available therapies and prognoses for various leukemias vary.
There are many types of Leukemia that exist, and children are more likely to develop specific leukemia subtypes. The majority of cases of other leukemias affect adults, and it typically involves white blood cells. Your white blood cells are powerful anti-infection agents, and when your body needs them, they usually grow and divide in an orderly manner. Yet, in people with Leukemia, the bone marrow overproduces abnormal, poor white blood cells.
Depending on Leukemia's kind and other variables, treatment for Leukemia may be difficult. Yet, some techniques and resources can aid in the success of your treatment.
How does Leukemia Develop?
Leukemia first manifests itself in the body, where the body produces soft, spongy bone marrow blood cells. Blood cells go through several developmental phases before reaching their full potential. Healthy, mature blood cells are made up of the following:
- Red blood cells transport oxygen and other vital substances to the tissues and organs of your body.
- White blood cells serve as immune system defenses.
- Blood clotting cells are called platelets.
Whatever physical impact does Leukemia have on you?
Having too many leukemia cells relative to healthy cells is harmful for a variety of reasons, including the following:
- When your body has leukemia cells, you cannot be healthy.
- Normal blood cells have limited room and assistance to grow and multiply within your bone marrow because the leukemia cells have overtaken them.
- Red blood cells, platelets, & white blood cells of a lower quality are created and released into your circulation. Organs and tissues in your body won't get enough oxygen. Also, your body won't be able to fight infections or produce blood clots as often as it should.
What types of Leukemia are there?
Leukemia comes in four primary subtypes and four main kinds. Medical professionals divide Leukemia into many categories based on how quickly it progresses and whether it develops from lymphoid or myeloid cells.
Classifications of Leukemia
Medical experts divide Leukemia into different categories based on how quickly it progresses and the type of blood cell involved.
1. Depending on How Rapidly a Disease Spreads
- Acute Leukemia: Leukemia cells divide quickly, causing the disease to spread quickly. If you have acute Leukemia, you will feel sick within weeks of the leukemia cells forming. Acute Leukemia is a serious illness that requires prompt treatment, and acute Leukemia is the most prevalent type of malignancy in children.
- Chronic Leukemia: These leukemia cells often behave like developing and mature blood cells. Some cells reach the point of functional maturity but not to the same extent as their healthy peers. In contrast to acute Leukemia, the illness typically gets worse over time. You might not have any symptoms for years if you have persistent Leukemia. Adults have a higher risk of developing chronic Leukemia than children do.
2. According to Cell Type
- Myelogenous Leukemia: Myelogenous Leukemia, also called myeloid Leukemia, is produced by myeloid cells. Red blood cells, white blood cells, & platelets are produced by healthy myeloid cells.
- Lymphocytic Leukemia: It is caused by lymphoid cells. White blood cells, essential to your body's immune system, develop from normal lymphoid cells.
Different Forms of Leukemia
The following are the four main types of Leukemia:
1. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
Acute lymphocytic Leukemia is the most common in children, adolescents, and young adults up to age 39. Adults of any age can be affected by ALL.
2. Acute myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
Adults are more likely to develop acute myelogenous Leukemia (AML) than any other type of acute Leukemia. In senior persons, it occurs more frequently (those over 65). AML can also affect youngsters, and AML can cause Chronic lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL).
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
It is the most frequent chronic Leukemia in adults (most common in people over 65). CLL symptoms may not appear for years.
4. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Chronic myelogenous Leukemia (CML) can affect people of any age, but older folks have a higher risk of developing it 'it is most prevalent in people over 65'. Rarely does it impact children, and CML symptoms may take several years to manifest.
How widespread is Leukemia?
The tenth most common malignancy, Leukemia, accounts for '3.2%' of all new cancer cases in the United States. Leukemia can affect anyone who is:
- Assigned male at birth (AMAB)
Leukemia and pediatric cancer are frequently linked. Other varieties, meanwhile, are more typical of adulthood. Leukemia is the most common malignancy in children and teenagers, despite being rare in this age group.
Symptoms and Causes
The symptoms will vary depending on the type of Leukemia. For instance, a chronic variety of Leukemia could not show any signs in its early stages. Leukemia is frequently accompanied by weariness, particularly easy fatigue.
- Sweats or fever at night
- Several infections
- Breathing difficulties
- Light skin
- Weight loss without cause
- Discomfort or pain in a bone or joint
- Under your left ribs, you may feel pain or fullness
- Lymph nodes that are swollen in your stomach, groin, underarm, or neck, as well as your liver or spleen
- Bleeding gums, nosebleeds, and a rash manifesting as purplish or darker skin regions and tiny red spots on the skin (petechiae)
What Causes Leukemia to Grow?
One bone marrow cell's DNA changes, resulting in Leukemia's emergence(mutation). A cell's DNA contains the "instruction code" for its creation, growth, and destruction. Leukemia cells continue to multiply due to mutation or coding errors. All cells that arise from the original abnormal cell carry their DNA. Scientists don't know what causes these developing cells to mutate, and scientists have identified several common variations across people with different types of Leukemia.
Are Certain Persons at a Higher Risk of Developing Leukemia Than Others?
Any person can develop Leukemia. Yet, research indicates that a few situations, such as the following, may increase your risk:
- Previous Cancer Therapy: If you've already received chemotherapy for cancer, your risk of developing some types of Leukemia could be increased.
- Smoking: If you have ever smoked or have been among smokers, you are at an increased risk of developing acute myelogenous Leukemia.
- Exposure to Industrial Chemicals: Many household goods and building materials contain substances like benzene & formaldehyde that are known to cause cancer. Benzene produces plastics, rubber, dyes, pesticides, medicines, and detergents. Formaldehyde is present in many household products, including soaps, shampoos, & cleaning supplies.
- Certain Genetic Disorders: Genetic disorders like Klinefelter syndrome, Schwachman-Diamond syndrome, & Down syndrome may raise your risk. The family history of Leukemia. Research suggests that some forms of Leukemia may run in families. Having a family relative with Leukemia does not, however, in most cases, mean that you or a different family member will also have the illness. Inform your doctor if you or a family member has a genetic condition. They might recommend genetic testing to identify your risk.
How Can Leukemia be Recognized?
The findings of normal blood tests could alert your doctor that you might have an acute or chronic form of Leukemia, which would call for additional testing. They might also suggest a workup if you show signs of Leukemia.
Examples of diagnostic examinations and testing include the following:
- Physical Examination: Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and examine you to check for enlarged liver, spleen, or lymph nodes. They may also check your gums for bleeding and swelling and look for a skin rash connected to Leukemia that can be red, purple, or brown.
- Complete Blood Count(CBC): This blood test reveals whether your platelet, white, or red blood cell counts are unusually high or low. If you have Leukemia, your white blood cell levels are probably greater than normal.
- Blood Cell Examination: Your doctor may take more blood samples to check for leukemia symptoms, such as specific leukemia types or indicators that leukemia cells are present. Peripheral blood smears & flow cytometry may also be requested as additional tests by your medical practitioner.
- Bone Marrow Biopsy: Your physician might carry out a bone marrow biopsy if you have an uncommon white blood cell count known as a 'bone marrow aspiration'. A long needle implanted during the treatment pulls fluid out of your bone marrow, and a fluid sample is used in a lab to examine leukemia cells. A bone marrow biopsy can help identify the percentage of aberrant cells in your bone marrow if Leukemia is suspected.
- Imaging and Other Testing: Your doctor can prescribe a chest X-ray, CT scan, or MRI scan if your symptoms indicate Leukemia has damaged your bones, organs, or tissue. The leukemia cells cannot be seen using imaging.
- Lumbar Puncture: A lumbar puncture, commonly called a spinal tap, collects a sample of spinal fluid for testing to see if Leukemia has spread to the fluid around your brain and spinal cord.
How Precisely is Leukemia Treated?
Treatment options for Leukemia depend on the nature of the cancer, age, general health, and if it has spread to different organs or tissues. The following are frequently used in combinations as treatments:
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the most widely used method of treating Leukemia. It entails using chemicals to destroy leukemia cells or stop their regrowth. The medication may be administered intravenously, topically, or as a tablet during treatment. Several different chemotherapy drugs will frequently be given to you. Several other chemotherapy drugs will frequently be given to you.
- Immunotherapy: Using certain drugs, you can strengthen your immune system to combat Leukemia. Your immune system can produce more immune cells and recognize cancer cells more accurately to help you fight them with immunotherapy. Using drugs made to specifically target leukemia cell elements, such as a protein or gene that are causing them to exceed healthy blood cells, targeted treatment can treat Leukemia.
- Targeted Therapies: Targeted therapies can kill leukemia cells directly, halt them from increasing, or block their blood supply. With targeted therapy, there is less chance of harming healthy cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies are some medications utilized in targeted therapy. In radiation therapy, leukemia cells are either destroyed or have their growth restricted by powerful energy beams or X-rays. During treatment, a machine utilizes radiation to distribute radiation throughout your body evenly or specifically target the parts containing cancer cells. Your body might be exposed to radiation before a hematopoietic cell transplant.
- Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: The therapy known as hematopoietic cell transplantation (also known as a stem cell or bone marrow transplant) replaces the malignant blood-forming cells that chemotherapy and radiation therapy have killed with new healthy hematopoietic cells. A medical expert may remove these healthy cells from your blood, bone marrow, or from a donor before chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Red blood cells, white blood cells, & platelets are required by your body and are produced when healthy new cells divide and form bone marrow and blood cells.
- CAR-T Cell Therapy (chimeric antigen receptor): It changes your immune system's T cells, sometimes referred to as T lymphocytes, so that they can fight leukemia cells before being reinfused into your body.
What Stages of the Treatment for Leukemia are there?
Depending on your treatment plan, your leukemia treatment may be given gradually or as part of a routine. Three elements comprise phased treatment most frequently, and each step has a specific objective.
- Induction Therapy: Eliminate all leukemia cells from your bloodstream and bone marrow to achieve remission. Blood cell counts are restored, no leukemia cells are found in your blood, and all disease symptoms disappear when Leukemia is in remission. Induction therapy typically lasts4 weeks.
- Consolidation(also called intensification): The goal is to eliminate any remaining, unidentified leukemia cells to stop cancer from returning. The administration of consolidation therapy frequently occurs in cycles separated by four to six months.
- Maintaining Therapy: The objective is to eliminate leukemia cells that might still be present after the first two therapy stages and prevent cancer from returning (relapse). Treatment lasts about two years.
Your doctor might opt to change or resume your treatment if Leukemia reappears.
Leukemia: Is it Curable?
Leukemia can be cured if the cancer is gone, it won't return, and no further therapy is required. This does not exclude some people from experiencing prolonged remission, and Leukemia, however, may make it difficult to determine. On the other hand, long-term remission means that cancer has vanished, regardless of treatment. A few weeks to several years may pass between flare-ups and remission, and Leukemia may never recur. If it does, your doctor might suggest different medications to help you reach remission.