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Linux Error Codes

Linux error codes are those codes that are displayed if an error occurs in the system while working or using a program. The errors can be recognized with the help of error codes. The error codes assist us in recognizing the source of error.

If we are working on a Linux system, it is obvious that we may encounter errors. Some errors can be minor and may not lead to interruption of the program. But there can be some errors that can cause a system or program to stop responding. These errors can lead to loss of data or may prevent the program from completing. Mostly errors are displayed in the form of codes or messages.

In this section, we will see errors in C programming and a list of possible errors in the Linux system.

Linux Errors in C programming

A skilled programmer should know how to deal with the errors. C programming language does not provide direct support for error handling. We have to detect the source of the error and deal with it. In C language, the return values display the failure or success. If a function in the C program fails, we must handle the error accordingly; otherwise it records the errors last in a log file.

While executing the C programs, we might notice some error numbers such as "Error no is: 17". Here, the error no 17 means the file already exists. Every error number has some meaning.

The C language supports a variable 'errorno.' By using this error number variable, we can use some error handling functions to handle it properly.

To use the external variable error number, we have to include a header file 'errno.h.' The <error.h> header file is used to define the 'errno' variable. The errno variable is set by the system calls and library functions in the error occurrence. There are two important functions in the C programming language to deal with errors; perror and strerror. The perror function is used to print the error description and the sterror function returns a string having error code.

Let's display the list of error codes by using errno.

Linux errno

The errno utility is used to looks up errno codes, macro names, and the corresponding descriptions. For example, if we provide ENOENT on a Linux system, it will display the code 2 and description " No such file or directory." If we provide the code 2, then it will display the ENOENT and its description.

If errno utility is not installed on our machine, it will display the error as follows:

Linux Error Codes

To install it, execute the below command:

By executing the above command, the moreutils package is installed on our machine that contains the errno utility.

Linux Error Codes

Display the List of Error codes

To display the list of the error codes, execute the command as follows:

The above command will display the list of error codes by RedHat. Consider the below output:

Linux Error Codes

Display the information of an error number

To display the information of a particular error number, execute the command as follows:

The above command will display the description of error number 2. Consider the below output:

Linux Error Codes

Display the information of an error name

To display the information of a particular error name, execute the errno command, followed by the error name. For example, to display the information of an error name 'ESRCH,' execute the command as follows:

The above command will display the information about the specified error name. Consider the below output:

Linux Error Codes

Display the error using strings

To display an error description by using a string from the description, execute the command as follows:

The above command will display the errors whose description contains string permission. Consider the below output:

Linux Error Codes

List of Linux system Errors

Following is a partial list of possible errors of Linux system:

Error code Error no Description
EPERM 1 It is displayed if the operation is not permitted.
ENOENT 2 It is displayed if there is no such file or directory exists.
ESRCH 3 It is displayed if there is no such process exists.
EINTR 4 It is displayed for Interrupted system call
EIO 5 It is displayed for input/output error.
ENXIO 6 It is displayed if there is no such device or address exists.
E2BIG 7 It is displayed if argument list is too long.
ENOEXEC 8 It is displayed if there is an exec format error
EBADF 9 It is displayed in case of bad file descriptor.
ECHILD 10 It is displayed if there is no child process exists.
EAGAIN 11 It is displayed if resource is temporarily unavailable.
ENOMEM 12 It is displayed if the system cannot allocate memory.
EACCES 13 It is displayed if permission is denied.
EFAULT 14 It is displayed if there is a bad address.
ENOTBLK 15 It is displayed if Block device is required.
EBUSY 16 It is displayed if device or resource is busy.
EEXIST 17 It is displayed if file already exists.
EXDEV 18 It is displayed if there is invalid cross-device link.
ENODEV 19 It is displayed if there is no such device.
ENOTDIR 20 It is displayed if there is not a directory.
EISDIR 21 It is displayed if there is a directory.
EINVAL 22 It is displayed if there is an invalid argument.
ENFILE 23 It is displayed if there are too many open files in system.
EMFILE 24 It is displayed if there are too many open files.
ENOTTY 25 It is displayed if there is an inappropriate ioctl for device.
ETXTBSY 26 It is displayed if text file is busy.
EFBIG 27 It is displayed if the file is too large.
ENOSPC 28 It is displayed if there is no space left on device.
ESPIPE 29 It is displayed in case of illegal seek.
EROFS 30 It is displayed in case of read-only file system.
EMLINK 31 It is displayed if there are too many links.
EPIPE 32 It is displayed in case of broken pipe.
EDOM 33 It is displayed if numerical argument is out of domain.
ERANGE 34 It is displayed if numerical result is out of range.
EDEADLK 35 It is displayed if resource deadlock is avoided.
ENAMETOOLONG 36 It is displayed if file name is too long.
ENOLCK 37 It is displayed if no locks are available.
ENOSYS 38 It is displayed if function is not implemented.
ENOTEMPTY 39 It is displayed if directory is not empty.
ELOOP 40 It is displayed if there are too many levels of symbolic links.
ENOMSG 42 It is displayed if there is no message of desired type.
EIDRM 43 It is displayed if identifier is removed.
ECHRNG 44 It is displayed if channel number is out of range.
EL2NSYNC 45 It is displayed if level 2 is not synchronized.
EL3HLT 46 It is displayed if Level 3 is halted.
EL3RST 47 It is displayed if Level 3 is reset.
ELNRNG 48 It is displayed if the link number is out of range.
EUNATCH 49 It is displayed if protocol driver is not attached.
ENOCSI 50 It is displayed if there is no CSI structure available.
EL2HLT 51 It is displayed if Level 2 is halted.
EBADE 52 It is displayed in case of invalid exchange.
EBADR 53 It is displayed in case of invalid request descriptor.
EXFULL 54 It is displayed if exchange is full.
ENOANO 55 It is displayed in case of No anode.
EBADRQC 56 It is displayed for invalid request code.
EBADSLT 57 It is displayed for invalid slot.
EBFONT 59 It is displayed if there is bad font file format.
ENOSTR 60 It is displayed if device is not a stream.
ENODATA 61 It is displayed if there is no data available.
ETIME 62 It is displayed in case of timer is expired.
ENOSR 63 It is displayed in case of out of streams resources.
ENONET 64 It is displayed if machine is not on the network.
ENOPKG 65 It is displayed if package is not installed.
EREMOTE 66 It is displayed if object is remote.
ENOLINK 67 It is displayed if the link has been severed.
EADV 68 It is displayed for advertise error.
ESRMNT 69 It is displayed for Srmount error.
ECOMM 70 It is displayed if there is communication error on send.
EPROTO 71 It is displayed for protocol error.
EMULTIHOP 72 It is displayed for Multihop attempted.
EDOTDOT 73 It is displayed for RFS specific error.
EBADMSG 74 It is displayed for Bad message.
EOVERFLOW 75 It is displayed if value is too large for defined data type.
ENOTUNIQ 76 It is displayed if name is not unique on network.
EBADFD 77 It is displayed if file descriptor is in bad state.
EREMCHG 78 It is displayed if remote address is changed.
ELIBACC 79 It is displayed if we cannot access a needed shared library.
ELIBBAD 80 It is displayed in case of accessing a corrupted shared library.
ELIBSCN 81 It is displayed if there is .lib section in a.out is corrupted.
ELIBMAX 82 It is displayed if we are attempting to link in too many shared libraries.
ELIBEXEC 83 It is displayed if we cannot exec a shared library directly.
EILSEQ 84 It is displayed for an invalid or incomplete multibyte or wide character
ERESTART 85 It is displayed to inform that interrupted system call should be restarted.
ESTRPIPE 86 It is displayed if there is streams pipe error.
EUSERS 87 It is displayed for too many users.
ENOTSOCK 88 It is displayed for socket operation on non-socket.
EDESTADDRREQ 89 It is displayed if the destination address is required.
EMSGSIZE 90 It is displayed if message is too long.
EPROTOTYPE 91 It is displayed if the protocol is wrong type for socket.
ENOPROTOOPT 92 It is displayed if the protocol is not available.
EPROTONOSUPPORT 93 It is displayed if protocol is not supported.
ESOCKTNOSUPPORT 94 It is displayed if the Socket type is not supported.
EOPNOTSUPP 95 It is displayed if the Operation is not supported.
EPFNOSUPPORT 96 It is displayed if the protocol family is not supported.
EAFNOSUPPORT 97 It is displayed if the address family is not supported by protocol.
EADDRINUSE 98 It is displayed if the address is already in use.
EADDRNOTAVAIL 99 It is displayed if the system cannot assign requested address.
ENETDOWN 100 It is displayed if network is down.
ENETUNREACH 101 It is displayed if network is unreachable.
ENETRESET 102 It is displayed if network has dropped connection on reset.
ECONNABORTED 103 It is displayed if software caused connection abort.
ECONNRESET 104 It is displayed if connection is reset by peer.
ENOBUFS 105 It is displayed if there is no buffer space available.
EISCONN 106 It is displayed if the transport endpoint is already connected.
ENOTCONN 107 It is displayed if the transport endpoint is not connected.
ESHUTDOWN 108 It is displayed if the system cannot send after transport endpoint shutdown.
ETOOMANYREFS 109 It is displayed if there are too many references: cannot splice.
ETIMEDOUT 110 It is displayed if connection is timed out.
ECONNREFUSED 111 It is displayed if connection is refused.
EHOSTDOWN 112 It is displayed if the Host is down.
EHOSTUNREACH 113 It is displayed if there is no route to host.
EALREADY 114 It is displayed if operation is already in progress.
EINPROGRESS 115 It is displayed if the operation is now in progress.
ESTALE 116 It is displayed for Stale file handle.
EUCLEAN 117 It is displayed if structure needs cleaning.
ENOTNAM 118 It is displayed for not a XENIX named type file.
ENAVAIL 119 It is displayed if there are no XENIX semaphores are available.
EISNAM 120 It is displayed if there is a named type file.
EREMOTEIO 121 It is displayed for Remote I/O error.
EDQUOT 122 It is displayed if disk quota is exceeded.
ENOMEDIUM 123 It is displayed if there is no medium found.
EMEDIUMTYPE 124 It is displayed if there is wrong medium type.
ECANCELED 125 It is displayed if operation is cancelled.
ENOKEY 126 It is displayed if required key is not available.
EKEYEXPIRED 127 It is displayed if the key has expired.
EKEYREVOKED 128 It is displayed if the key has been revoked.
EKEYREJECTED 129 It is displayed if the key was rejected by service.
EOWNERDEAD 130 It is displayed if the Owner is died.
ENOTRECOVERABLE 131 It is displayed for no recoverable state.
ERFKILL 132 It is displayed if the operation is not possible due to RF-kill.
EHWPOISON 133 It is displayed if the memory page has hardware error.





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