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List of Acids

Acids are those substances or molecules that have a pH value of less than 7 (including negative values) and release hydrogen-ion while reacting with metals and other substances. Or, it can also be said that substances or molecules having pH values less than 7 are acidic in nature. Acids are generally sour in taste, promote chemical reactions, form salts when react with bases, liberate Hydrogen-ion while reacting with metals, and turn blue litmus paper to red. Generally, acids are categorized into the following two categories according to the pH value of the acidic molecule:

  1. Strong Acids (Having very low or negative pH value)
  2. Weak Acids (Have positive and near to 7 pH value)

There are many popular acids that are used in daily life, and these most popular acids include both categories of acids (strong and weak acids). Following is a complete list of popular acids that can be seen and are used in everyday life:

1. Citric Acid

Chemical formula- C6H8O7

Other names- 2- Hydroxy-1,2,3- propanetricarboxylic acid

Ph level- 3-6

Molar Mass- 192.124g/Mol

List of Acids

Citric acid is a natural acid derived from citrus fruits like oranges and lemons that gives the acid tart and sour taste. It is a weak organic acid that appears as odorless and colorless crystals.


  • It plays a key role in the pathway of aerobic organisms.
  • Citric acid possesses antioxidant properties that are used as an excipient in pharmaceutical preparations.
  • It also works as an acidulant to control pH and also performs as an anticoagulant by chelating calcium in the blood.
  • It acts as a preservative by stabilizing active ingredients.
  • Citric acid is produced in massive amounts and used as additives in food, nutritional supplements, and cleaning agents.

Although, the acid produced is different from the acid found naturally.

2. Hydrochloric Acid

Chemical formula- HCl

Other names- Marine acid, Spirit of salt, chloronium

Ph level- 3.01

Molar Mass- 36.458g/Mol

List of Acids

Hydrochloric acid is a highly corrosive strong acid that is found in diluted form as muriatic acid. It is a colorless solution with an extraordinary pungent smell. This acid is naturally produced in the stomach of humans that aids in the digestion of food. Hydrochloride acid is artificially manufactured for numerous commercial and industrial applications. It is formed synthetically by various manufacturing procedures like dissolving hydrogen chloride gas in water.


  • Chemical industries use it in wide-ranging manufacturing of vinyl chloride that is used to build PVC (polyvinyl chloride) plastic, calcium chloride, and polyurethane.
  • Hydrochloric acid is also utilized in making other chemicals, including disinfect and slimicide.
  • Some other regular uses of hydrochloric acid involve household cleaners, food production, and maintenance of swimming pools by maintaining an optimal pH in the water.

3. Acetic Acid

Chemical formula- HC2H3O2

Other names- ethanoic Acid, AcOH, CH3COOH, methane carboxylic acid

Ph level- 2.5

Molar Mass- 60.052 g/mol

List of Acids

Acetic acid is an organic compound and one of the simplest carboxylic acids found in vinegar. It is the main ingredient of vinegar, as vinegar consists of about 5- 10% acetic acid. It is a weak acid that basically exists in an aqueous form that is clear, colorless, and with a pungent odor. Glacial acetic acid is formed when acetic acid is dissolved in water. Acetic acid is manufactured first and foremost as a predecessor to polyvinyl acetate and cellulose acetate, along with household vinegar.


  • Acetic acid is largely used in the manufacturing of Vinyl Acetate Monomer, following the production of acetic anhydrous and ester
  • Acetic acid is a chemical reagent that is highly used in the manufacturing of chemical compounds.
  • It is used as a solvent generally for paints, inks, and coatings
  • It is used as a coagulant in rubber production and also utilized in the production of perfumes and various dyestuff.
  • Food industries use it as preservatives, and also it is used in the home as table vinegar.
  • In the medical industry, acetic acid injections treat cancer and are used in antiseptic creams, and it also helps in the cure of otitis externally.

4. Boric Acid

Chemical formula- H3BO3

Other names- Acidum boricum, hydrogen orthoborate

Ph level- 9.1

Molar Mass- 61.83 g/Mol

List of Acids

Boric acid is a weak acid by nature and is soluble in water easily. It occurs in nature and does not possess any distinctive smell, and it exists both in white powdered form and in the colorless crystal. Boric acid can be made by reacting borax with hydrochloric acid.


  • Boric acid is used as an antiseptic to treat minor cuts and burns
  • Boric acid also acts as an effectual insecticide to control termites, fire ants, cockroaches, silverfish, and many other insects and is advised safe for domestic use
  • Boric acid is used as flame retardant, neutron absorber, and precessedor to another chemical compound
  • Boric acid prevents the growth of fungus by such means conserving the furniture, by preventing them from the invasion of termites and bugs
  • Boric acid is used in the maintenance of swimming pools as it destroys any fungus caused after swimming

5. Nitric Acid

Chemical formula- HNO3

Other names- Aqua fortis, Eau forte, Acid nitricum, Hydrogen nitrate, Spirit of niter

Ph level- 3.1

Molar Mass- 63.01 g/Mol

List of Acids

Nitric acid is a strong and highly corrosive mineral acid with a highly pungent smell and bitter taste. It is a colorless liquid when in its purest form but gradually acquires yellow color from the decomposition of water into nitrogen oxides. This acid can dissolve metals like copper, silver, and iron. Nitric acid is a potent oxidizing agent, as it readily accepts electrons from other substances.


  • Nitric acid is widely used in the production of explosives
  • It is used as a chemical reagent to recognize numerous other metals
  • It can be used as a low-cost procedure to identify and examine the purity of gold, specifically in low-grade alloys
  • It is used in producing fertilizers on a large scale as it fosters the growth of the plants
  • It is a constituent of solid rocket fuels and behaves as an oxidizer
  • Nitric acid can be used to carve metals by adding it to a solution of water and alcohol

6. Hydrofluoric Acid

Chemical formula- HF

Other names- Hydrofluoride, flurohydric acid, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen monofluoride

Ph level- 3.27

Molar Mass- 20.0063 g/Mol

List of Acids

Hydrofluoric acid is an organic compound formed when hydrogen fluoride is dissolved in water. This acid is colorless and highly corrosive. However, it does not completely dissociate into the water and is therefore considered a 'weak' acid. It can cause deep burns to human skin when it comes into contact.


  • Hydrofluoric acid is used in manufacturing various daily need items such as fluorescent light bulbs, electrical components, and plastics
  • Hydrofluoric acid is used in the manufacturing of herbicides, aluminum, and high-octane gasoline
  • It is used in pharmaceutical companies to produce common drugs like Fluoxetin as HF is used as a forerunner of most of the fluorine compounds
  • It is generally used to produce fluorocarbon that is highly used in refrigerants and aerosol sprays
  • It is used as a cleaning agent in rust removers and as an element in producing stain removers, resins, and solvents
  • It has long been used to engrave metal and glass materials

7. Carbonic Acid

Chemical formula- CH2O3

Other names- acid of air, kihydroxyketone, dihydrogen carbonate, aerial acid

Ph level- 4.18

Molar Mass- 62.03 g/Mol

List of Acids

Carbonic acid is the solution of carbon dioxide in water (carbonated water). It is a weak acid and the only acid excreted by the lungs as gas. It is unique as it contains the carbon but is an organic compound and is the most common type of acid because of the abundance of carbon dioxide and water. Carbonic acid is also found in the bloodstream as the CO2 in blood bonds with the water in the blood. This acid can cause erosion based on the chemical constitution of the material. It is also one of the primary reasons for the low pH level of the water.


  • Carbonic acid helps to transport carbon dioxide out of the body
  • It is used to precipitate various ammonium salts like ammonium persulfate
  • It is used to prepare carbonated water, various aerated drinks, and sparkling wine
  • Solutions consisting of this compound can effectively clean contact lenses
  • It can be taken orally if one needs to induce vomiting in cases like drug overdose

8. Oxalic Acid

Chemical formula- H2C2O4

Other names- hydrogen oxalate, Acidum oxalium, oxiric acid, ethanedionate, ethanedioic acid

Ph level- 3

Molar Mass- 90.03 g/Mol

List of Acids

Oxalic acid belongs to a family of carboxylic acids and is a weak organic compound. It is a naturally derived chemical found in legumes, leafy greens, and other plant food we consume through our diet. However, excessive intake of oxalic acid can cause harm to the human body. Oxalic acid is produced by the oxidation of carbohydrates and can also be prepared in the laboratory by oxidizing sucrose in the existence of nitric acid and vanadium pentoxide as a catalyst.


  • Oxalic acid possesses qualities of bleach and is used for removing rust and stain from metals and objects
  • It is found in detergents and various cleaning products
  • It is perfect for polishing stones and for the treatment of old wood
  • It is applied mainly for mineral processing mechanisms and for sterilizing equipment
  • It is used in treating wastewater as it potentially removes calcium deposits from water
  • While developing photographic films, oxalic acid is used as a reducing element

9. Sulfuric acid

Chemical formula- H2SO4

Other names- dipping acid, Terra Alba, battery acid, matting acid, oil of vitriol

Ph level- 1.87

Molar Mass- 98.079 g/mol

List of Acids

Sulphuric acid is a highly corrosive and strong mineral acid prepared from sulfur dioxide, and it behaves as a dehydrating agent and an oxidizing agent at higher concentrations. It is an oily liquid with no odor, can be colorless to slightly yellow, and to make people aware of its composition; it may be dyed dark brown. Sulfuric acid is water-soluble, and heat is released when it is dissolved in water. Sulfuric acid can cause severe chemical and thermal burns through an exothermic dehydration reaction.


  • Sulfuric acid is used in petroleum refining
  • It is used as an electrolyte in lead-acid batteries
  • It is used in storage batteries
  • It is used to prepare fertilizers
  • It is widely used in chemical manufacturing industries
  • It is used to make phosphoric acid and ammonium sulfate
  • During the conversion of cyclohexanone oxine to caprolactam (used in making nylon), sulfuric acid is used as a catalyst
  • In industries, it is used as a cleaning agent to remove rust from iron and steel
  • It is used in the steel and iron production

10. Phosphoric acid

Chemical formula- H3PO4

Other names- Trihydrogen phosphate, orthophosphoric acid, Acidum phosphoricum

Ph level- <2

Molar Mass- 97.994g/mol

List of Acids

Phosphoric acid is among the most applicable and essential mineral acids. This acid is generally found in the aqueous form (about 85%). It is a sticky, colorless, odorless, non-volatile, and non-toxic solution that has a melting point of 42.4°C. Pure phosphoric acid is commonly found in the form of a white crystalline solid. This acid is categorized as a weak acid, but still, it can irritate or burn the skin and can be harmful to the eyes as well as membranes in the nose.


  • Phosphoric acid is used as a food additive, and it also acts as an acidity regulator in foods like processed meats, cereal bars, jams, cheese, etc.
  • It is used in a large variety of personal care products such as bath and cleansing products, hair products and dyes, skincare products, fragrances, and makeup
  • It is used in the manufacturing of fertilizers and as an additive and flavoring agent in poultry or animal feed
  • It is used as an intermediate in pharmaceuticals, and the main area where phosphoric acid is used is in dentistry, like mouth washing solutions and teeth whiteners. It is also used as anti-nausea drugs
  • It is used in the construction industry, including removal of mineral deposits, hard water stains, and cement swear

11. Perchloric Acid

Chemical formula- HClO4

Other names- hydroxidotrioxidochlorine, hyperchloric acid

Molar Mass- 100.46 g/mol

List of Acids

Perchloric acid (50-72%) is a solution with no color or odor. It is a strong acid that is highly corrosive to tissues and metals. Closed containers rupture violently when exposed to heat for a long time.


  • Perchloric acid is used for plating metals
  • It is used in rocket fuel
  • It is used as a catalyst
  • It is used in making explosives
  • It is used for etching molybdenum and electropolishing
  • It is used as a reagent to settle the 1H- Benzotriazole
  • In the separation of potassium and sodium, perchloric acid is used as an oxidizer

12. Formic Acid

Chemical formula- CH2O2

Other names- Methanoic acid, aminic acid, Formylic acid

Ph level- 3.47

Molar Mass- 46.03 g/mol

List of Acids

Formic acid is a weak acid that is naturally produced in the stings of bees and ants. It is a colorless solution with a pungent and penetrating odor. It is a water-soluble acid. Its melting point is 8.4°C, and its boiling point is 100.8°C. This acid is harmful at high concentrations, whereas very effective at low concentrations.


  • Formic acid is a very useful material in the tanning and dyeing industries.
  • It is used in most of the industrial chemicals in the group of saturated monocarboxylic acids
  • Formic acid is mixed with HCl or citric acid for the removal of oxide deposits as it is unable to remove it alone
  • To reduce potassium dichromate and sodium, formic acid is used as a reducing agent

13. Chloric Acid

Chemical formula- HClO3

Ph level- 1.5 to 3.5

Molar Mass- 84.45914 g/mol

List of Acids

Chloric acid is a strong acid and a strong oxidizing agent. It appears as a colorless solution with a pungent smell. It accelerates the burning of flammable items and, when it comes in contact, catches fire. It is highly corrosive to tissues and metals.


  • Chloric acid possesses oxidizing property due to which it is used as a reagent in chemical analysis
  • It is also used to prepare other chemicals in chemical industries

14. Benzoic Acid

Chemical formula- C6H5COOH

Other names- benzene carboxylic acid

Ph level- 2.5 to 4.0

Molar Mass- 122.3°C

List of Acids

Benzoic acid is an organic compound and a weak acid. It is called an aromatic carboxylic acid as it contains a carboxyl group attached to a benzene ring. This compound has an agreeably pleasing fragrance due to the presence of an aromatic ring. Under normal conditions, this acid appears as a colorless and crystalline solid. It is a water-soluble compound. The density of this compound decreases to 1.075 grams per cubic centimeter at a temperature of 130°C.


  • Benzoic acid is used as an ingredient in various cosmetic items like lipsticks
  • C6H5 is one of the constituents of mouthwash, face wash, and toothpaste
  • Benzoic acid is involved in the production of phenol
  • It is used as a preservative in the food industry
  • It is used in the production of insect repellent and dyes
  • In pharmaceuticals, it is used in ointments that treat or prevent fungal skin diseases
  • It is also a predecessor to benzoyl chloride

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