List of Acids
Acids are those substances or molecules that have a pH value of less than 7 (including negative values) and release hydrogen-ion while reacting with metals and other substances. Or, it can also be said that substances or molecules having pH values less than 7 are acidic in nature. Acids are generally sour in taste, promote chemical reactions, form salts when react with bases, liberate Hydrogen-ion while reacting with metals, and turn blue litmus paper to red. Generally, acids are categorized into the following two categories according to the pH value of the acidic molecule:
There are many popular acids that are used in daily life, and these most popular acids include both categories of acids (strong and weak acids). Following is a complete list of popular acids that can be seen and are used in everyday life:
1. Citric Acid
Chemical formula- C6H8O7
Other names- 2- Hydroxy-1,2,3- propanetricarboxylic acid
Ph level- 3-6
Molar Mass- 192.124g/Mol
Citric acid is a natural acid derived from citrus fruits like oranges and lemons that gives the acid tart and sour taste. It is a weak organic acid that appears as odorless and colorless crystals.
Although, the acid produced is different from the acid found naturally.
2. Hydrochloric Acid
Chemical formula- HCl
Other names- Marine acid, Spirit of salt, chloronium
Ph level- 3.01
Molar Mass- 36.458g/Mol
Hydrochloric acid is a highly corrosive strong acid that is found in diluted form as muriatic acid. It is a colorless solution with an extraordinary pungent smell. This acid is naturally produced in the stomach of humans that aids in the digestion of food. Hydrochloride acid is artificially manufactured for numerous commercial and industrial applications. It is formed synthetically by various manufacturing procedures like dissolving hydrogen chloride gas in water.
3. Acetic Acid
Chemical formula- HC2H3O2
Other names- ethanoic Acid, AcOH, CH3COOH, methane carboxylic acid
Ph level- 2.5
Molar Mass- 60.052 g/mol
Acetic acid is an organic compound and one of the simplest carboxylic acids found in vinegar. It is the main ingredient of vinegar, as vinegar consists of about 5- 10% acetic acid. It is a weak acid that basically exists in an aqueous form that is clear, colorless, and with a pungent odor. Glacial acetic acid is formed when acetic acid is dissolved in water. Acetic acid is manufactured first and foremost as a predecessor to polyvinyl acetate and cellulose acetate, along with household vinegar.
4. Boric Acid
Chemical formula- H3BO3
Other names- Acidum boricum, hydrogen orthoborate
Ph level- 9.1
Molar Mass- 61.83 g/Mol
Boric acid is a weak acid by nature and is soluble in water easily. It occurs in nature and does not possess any distinctive smell, and it exists both in white powdered form and in the colorless crystal. Boric acid can be made by reacting borax with hydrochloric acid.
5. Nitric Acid
Chemical formula- HNO3
Other names- Aqua fortis, Eau forte, Acid nitricum, Hydrogen nitrate, Spirit of niter
Ph level- 3.1
Molar Mass- 63.01 g/Mol
Nitric acid is a strong and highly corrosive mineral acid with a highly pungent smell and bitter taste. It is a colorless liquid when in its purest form but gradually acquires yellow color from the decomposition of water into nitrogen oxides. This acid can dissolve metals like copper, silver, and iron. Nitric acid is a potent oxidizing agent, as it readily accepts electrons from other substances.
6. Hydrofluoric Acid
Chemical formula- HF
Other names- Hydrofluoride, flurohydric acid, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen monofluoride
Ph level- 3.27
Molar Mass- 20.0063 g/Mol
Hydrofluoric acid is an organic compound formed when hydrogen fluoride is dissolved in water. This acid is colorless and highly corrosive. However, it does not completely dissociate into the water and is therefore considered a 'weak' acid. It can cause deep burns to human skin when it comes into contact.
7. Carbonic Acid
Chemical formula- CH2O3
Other names- acid of air, kihydroxyketone, dihydrogen carbonate, aerial acid
Ph level- 4.18
Molar Mass- 62.03 g/Mol
Carbonic acid is the solution of carbon dioxide in water (carbonated water). It is a weak acid and the only acid excreted by the lungs as gas. It is unique as it contains the carbon but is an organic compound and is the most common type of acid because of the abundance of carbon dioxide and water. Carbonic acid is also found in the bloodstream as the CO2 in blood bonds with the water in the blood. This acid can cause erosion based on the chemical constitution of the material. It is also one of the primary reasons for the low pH level of the water.
8. Oxalic Acid
Chemical formula- H2C2O4
Other names- hydrogen oxalate, Acidum oxalium, oxiric acid, ethanedionate, ethanedioic acid
Ph level- 3
Molar Mass- 90.03 g/Mol
Oxalic acid belongs to a family of carboxylic acids and is a weak organic compound. It is a naturally derived chemical found in legumes, leafy greens, and other plant food we consume through our diet. However, excessive intake of oxalic acid can cause harm to the human body. Oxalic acid is produced by the oxidation of carbohydrates and can also be prepared in the laboratory by oxidizing sucrose in the existence of nitric acid and vanadium pentoxide as a catalyst.
9. Sulfuric acid
Chemical formula- H2SO4
Other names- dipping acid, Terra Alba, battery acid, matting acid, oil of vitriol
Ph level- 1.87
Molar Mass- 98.079 g/mol
Sulphuric acid is a highly corrosive and strong mineral acid prepared from sulfur dioxide, and it behaves as a dehydrating agent and an oxidizing agent at higher concentrations. It is an oily liquid with no odor, can be colorless to slightly yellow, and to make people aware of its composition; it may be dyed dark brown. Sulfuric acid is water-soluble, and heat is released when it is dissolved in water. Sulfuric acid can cause severe chemical and thermal burns through an exothermic dehydration reaction.
10. Phosphoric acid
Chemical formula- H3PO4
Other names- Trihydrogen phosphate, orthophosphoric acid, Acidum phosphoricum
Ph level- <2
Molar Mass- 97.994g/mol
Phosphoric acid is among the most applicable and essential mineral acids. This acid is generally found in the aqueous form (about 85%). It is a sticky, colorless, odorless, non-volatile, and non-toxic solution that has a melting point of 42.4°C. Pure phosphoric acid is commonly found in the form of a white crystalline solid. This acid is categorized as a weak acid, but still, it can irritate or burn the skin and can be harmful to the eyes as well as membranes in the nose.
11. Perchloric Acid
Chemical formula- HClO4
Other names- hydroxidotrioxidochlorine, hyperchloric acid
Molar Mass- 100.46 g/mol
Perchloric acid (50-72%) is a solution with no color or odor. It is a strong acid that is highly corrosive to tissues and metals. Closed containers rupture violently when exposed to heat for a long time.
12. Formic Acid
Chemical formula- CH2O2
Other names- Methanoic acid, aminic acid, Formylic acid
Ph level- 3.47
Molar Mass- 46.03 g/mol
Formic acid is a weak acid that is naturally produced in the stings of bees and ants. It is a colorless solution with a pungent and penetrating odor. It is a water-soluble acid. Its melting point is 8.4°C, and its boiling point is 100.8°C. This acid is harmful at high concentrations, whereas very effective at low concentrations.
13. Chloric Acid
Chemical formula- HClO3
Ph level- 1.5 to 3.5
Molar Mass- 84.45914 g/mol
Chloric acid is a strong acid and a strong oxidizing agent. It appears as a colorless solution with a pungent smell. It accelerates the burning of flammable items and, when it comes in contact, catches fire. It is highly corrosive to tissues and metals.
14. Benzoic Acid
Chemical formula- C6H5COOH
Other names- benzene carboxylic acid
Ph level- 2.5 to 4.0
Molar Mass- 122.3°C
Benzoic acid is an organic compound and a weak acid. It is called an aromatic carboxylic acid as it contains a carboxyl group attached to a benzene ring. This compound has an agreeably pleasing fragrance due to the presence of an aromatic ring. Under normal conditions, this acid appears as a colorless and crystalline solid. It is a water-soluble compound. The density of this compound decreases to 1.075 grams per cubic centimeter at a temperature of 130°C.