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List of European Countries

Europe is a unique continent in itself as it is the only continent that is not surrounded by water from all its dimensions. It is surrounded by the Arctic Ocean from the north, by the Atlantic Ocean from the west, by the Black Sea from the Southwest, and by the Mediterranean Sea from the South. Geographically, Europe is sharing an overland border with neighboring Asia, and it occupies the northwestern part of Eurasia (the larger landmass of Europe and Asia).

Following are some facts about the European countries:

  • In Europe, there are 51 independent countries (Spain, Germany, Italy, etc.) that are dividing the continent into boundaries.
  • Many European countries like Kazakhstan, Georgia, Russia, Turkey, and Azerbaijan, which are transcontinental, i.e., countries that are partially located in Europe and Asia.
  • Countries such as Cyprus and Armenia are geographically considered located in the West Asia territory, but politically they are counted in the European countries.
  • The largest country in Europe is Russia which approximately also covers 37% geographical area, and it is followed by Germany, UK, and France respectively.
  • The smallest country in Europe is Vatican City which is just like a tiny territory, and it only occupies a very small area in the center of Rome, and Monaco and San Marino, respectively, follow it.

Note: We have to remember the fact that European countries and European Union are two different things, and we don't have to get confused between these two. European counties are the countries that are politically or geographically considered as part of the European continent, whereas the European Union is a politically and economically union formed by 28 countries of the European continent.

List of countries in Europe

In this section, we will discuss the list of all the countries in Europe with their description as well as their area, their capital, their currencies as well as their official language. We will describe these countries in alphabetical order and discuss the properties listed above.

S. No. Name of the country (in alphabetical order) Official Currency of the Country The total area of the country (in Sq. KM.) The official language of the country The capital city of the country
1. Albania Albanian lek 28,703 Albanian Tirane
2. Andorra Euro 468 Catalan Andorra la Vella
3. Armenia Armenian


29,743 Armenian Yerevan
4. Austria Euro 88,882 German Vienna
5. Azerbaijan Manat 86,600 Azerbaijani Baku (Baki)
6. Belarus Belarusian Ruble 207,595 Belarusian and Russian Minsk
7. Belgium Euro 11,840 Dutch, French, and German Brussels
8 Bosnia and Herzegovina Convertible mark 51,209 Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian (at the entity level) Sarajevo
9. Bulgaria Lev 110,372 Bulgarian Sofia
10. Croatia Kuna 56,594 Croatian Zagreb
11. Cyprus Euro 9,251 Greek and Turkish Nicosia
12. Czech Republic Koruna 78,871 Czech Prague
13. Denmark Danish krone 42,938 Danish Copenhagen
14. Estonia Euro 45,336 Estonian Tallinn
15. Finland Euro 390,909 Finnish and Swedish Helsinki
16. France Euro and CFP Franc 543,965 French Paris
17. Georgia Georgian Lari 69,700 Georgian and Abkhazian Tbilisi
18. Germany Euro 357,104 German Berlin
19. Greece Euro 131,957 Greek Athens
20. Hungary Forint 93,023 Hungarian Budapest
21. Iceland Icelandic krona 103,000 Icelandic Reykjavik
22. Ireland Euro 70,273 Irish and English Dublin
23. Italy Euro 302,073 Italian Rome
24. Kazakhstan Tenge 2,724,842 Kazakh Nur-sultan
25. Kosova Euro 10,905 Albanian and Serbian Pristina
26. Latvia Euro 64,573 Latvian Riga
27. Liechtenstein Swiss franc 160.5 German Vaduz
28. Lithuania Euro 65,286 Lithuanian Vilnius
29. Luxembourg Euro 2,586 Luxembourgish, French, and German Luxembourg
30. Malta Euro 315.2 Maltese and English Valletta
31. Moldova Moldovan leu 33,843 Romanian Chisinau
32. Montenegro Euro 13,888 Montenegrin Podgorica is the new capital of the country, whereas Cetinje is the Old Royal Capital.
33. Netherlands Euro and US Dollar 41,850 Dutch Amsterdam
34. North Macedonia Macedonian denar (MKD) 25,713 Turkish, Romani, Serbian, Bosnian, and Aromanian Skopje
35. Norway Norwegian krone (NOK) 385,208 Norwegian, Bokmål, Nynorsk, Sámi, Northern, Lule and Southern Oslo
36. Romania Romanian leu 238,397 Romanian Bucharest
37. Russia Russian Ruble 17,125,000 Russian Moscow
38. San Marino Euro 61 Italian San Marino
39. Serbia Serbian Dinar 77,589 Serbian Belgrade
40. Slovakia Euro 49,034 Slovak Bratislava
41. Spain Euro 506,002 Spanish Madrid
42. Sweden Swedish krona 447,425 Swedish Stockholm
43. Switzerland Swiss franc 41,285 German, French and Italian Bern
44. Turkey Turkish lira 785,347 Turkish Ankara
45. Ukraine Hryvnia 603,549 Ukrainian Kyiv or also known as Kiev
46. United Kingdom Pound 242,500 English London
47. Vatican City (Holy See) Euro 0.44 Italian Vatican City

Now, here we will look at the brief description of all the European countries that we have listed above:


Albania is a small country covered with mountains and is situated in Southern Europe. It lies in the West of the Balkan Peninsula on the "Strait of Otranto," which is the entryway from the South to the Adriatic Sea.


Andorra is ranked 16 for the smallest country in the world. This is a small independent country located in the midst of the Pyrenees Mountains. The northern and southern part of the country is enclosed by France, whereas Spain surrounds the southern and northern parts of the country.


Armenia, the country of Transcaucasia, is located in the southern part of the wide mountain range of the Caucasus and facing the northwestern edge of Asia. The northern and eastern part of the country is surrounded by Georgia and Azerbaijan, whereas Iran and Turkey are the neighboring nations to the southeast and west individually.


Austria is a nation of South-Central Europe that is widely surrounded by mountains. Jointly with Switzerland, it forms whatever signifies as the neutral core of Europe. Austria has the associated with the supranational European Union (EU) since 1995.


Azerbaijan is a nation of eastern Transcaucasia formally known as the Azerbaijani Republic. It covers the part that margins the southern flanks of the Caucasus mountains. The northern part is surrounded by Russia and the eastern part of the Caspian Sea, the eastern part by Iran, the western part by Armenia, and the northwest by Georgia.


Belarus, which is a country located in Eastern Europe, is a landlocked country that became independent in 1991. Previously known as White Russia or Belorussia, Belarus was the smallest Slavic of the three Slavic republics that were under the control of the Soviet Union (the larger two being were Russia and Ukraine). The official name of Belarus is Respublika Belarus, Or the Republic of Belarus.


Belgium is a nation located in Western Europe. The country is famous for medieval towns and Renaissance architectonics. The headquarter of the European Union and NATO is located in Belgium. It is one of the smallest and compactly populated countries in Europe. Belgium has many official names according to different languages, but that all means the kingdom of Belgium in English.

Let's have a look at official names Belgium have in different languages:

  • Koninkrijk België in Dutch
  • Royaume de Belgique in French
  • Königreich Belgien in German

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina, the country which are located in Europe's western Balkan Peninsula. Bosnia, the larger region of the country, occupies the central and northwestern part of the country, whereas Herzegovina occupies the Southwest and south part. The official name of Bosnia and Herzegovina is Bosna i Hercegovina that itself means Bosnia and Herzegovina.


The Bulgarian country that occupies the Balkan Peninsula's Eastern region, which is situated in southeastern Europe, is officially known as the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian Republika B?lgariya). Bulgaria, which is one of the oldest states of the European continent, was created in the seventh century.


Croatia is a country that is very small in area perspective but highly diverse and consent-shaped geographically. It is located in the Balkan Peninsula's northwestern part. The official name of the country is Republika Hrvatska, which means the Republic of Croatia.


Cyprus, which is also known as Kípros in Greek and K?br?s in Turkish, is an island that is located in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea. Cyprus is renowned for its superb produces of wines, mineral wealth, and natural beauty since ancient times.

Following is the official names of Cyprus in various different languages:

  • Kipriakí Dhimokratía in Greek
  • K?br?s Cumhuriyeti in Turkish that means the Republic of Cyprus
  • Kuzey K?br?s Türk Cumhuriyeti also in Turkish that means Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic, a country which is located in central Europe, is also known as Czechia. The country adopted the name Czechia as the informal and shortened name for the Czech Republic in 2016. The official name of the country is ?eská Republika which means the Czech Republic.


Denmark, a country which is located in the extend from northwards of the central part of Eastern Europe continent. Denmark is basically located in the Jutland (Jylland) Peninsula in the continent of Europe, and it is an archipelago of more than 400 islands. Denmark is also a part of Scandinavia, which is basically the Northern region of Europe. The official name of Denmark is Kongeriget Danmark, which means the Kingdom of Denmark.


Estonia, one of the countries that are located in northeastern Europe, is the northernmost state of all three Baltic States. Over 1500 islands and islets are included in the Area of Estonia. The official name of Estonia is Eesti Vabariik, which means the Republic of Estonia.


Finland, one of the world's most geographically remote and northern countries, is located in the northern part of Europe. It is also a subject to many severe climates, and almost two-thirds portion of it is covered by thick woodlands that make it the most densely forested country of Europe. A symbolic northern border between the Eastern and Western European continent is also formed by Finland.

Following is the official names of Finland in various different languages:

  • Suomen Tasavalta in Finnish
  • Republiken Finland in Swedish means the Republic of Finland.


France, which is officially known as French France or République Française (means Republic of France), is a country located in Northwestern Europe. France is one of the most important nations of the Western world, both culturally and historically.


Georgia, known as Sakartvelo in Georgian, is a Transcaucasia country that is situated in the Black sea's eastern end on the southern flanks of the Greater Caucasus Mountains' main crest. Georgia shares its boundaries with Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Turkey, with the Black Sea in the west.


Germany, transversing the continent's main divisions of physical, is a country located in the north-central part of the European continent.

Following are the official names of Germany in different languages:

  • Bundesrepublik Deutschland that means the Federal Republic of Germany
  • German Deutschland


Greece, the country located at the southernmost part of the Balkan peninsula, lies at the juncture of Asia and Europe. One-fifth of the total land area of Greece is made up of the Greek islands. The official name of Greece is Ellinikí Dhimokratía that means the Hellenic Republic.


Hungary, which is also known as Magyarország in the Hungarian language, is a landlocked country that is located in the central part of Europe. The official name of Hungary is also Magyarország.


Iceland, which is an island country situated in the North Atlantic ocean. Iceland lies in the constantly active geological border between Europe and North America. The official name of Iceland is Lýdhveldidh Ísland that means the Republic of Iceland.


Ireland, which is also known as Éire in Irish, is a country located in the western part of Europe. Ireland occupies the 5/6th portion of the major islands of the British Isles from the westernmost.


Italy, a country which is occupying the deep into the peninsula from the Mediterranean sea, is situated in the south-central part of Europe. Italy, which is often described as a country that has a shape like a boot, comprises some of the most scenic and varied landscapes of Earth. The official name of Italy is Repubblica Italiana that means the Italian Republic.


Kazakhstan, which is also spelled as Kazakstan, is officially known as the Republic of Kazakhstan. The most region of Kazakhstan is located in Asia, with some portion of it is located in the western part of Europe, and it is the fifth-largest country of central Asia.

Following are the official names of Kazakhstan in different languages:

  • Qazaqstan Resp?bl?kasy in Kazakh
  • Respublika Kazakhstan in Russian
  • And, both given names mean the Republic of Kazakhstan.


Kosova, which is a self-declared independent country, is situated in the Balkan regions of Europe. Many countries like the US and most members of the European Union recognize the independence of Kosova in 2008 from Serbia; still, some countries like Russia, Serbia, etc., don't validate its self-declared independence.


Latvia, a country which is located in the northeastern part of Europe, is also situated in the middle of three Baltic states. The official name of Latvia is Latvijas Republika, which means the Republic of Latvia.


Liechtenstein, a country which is situated principally between Austria and Switzerland, is located in the western part of Europe. Liechtenstein is counted as one of the smallest countries on the European continent. The official name of Liechtenstein is Fürstentum Liechtenstein that means Principality of Liechtenstein.


Lithuania, the southernmost and largest country of all Baltic States, is situated in the Northeastern part of Europe. During 14th to 16th centuries, Lithuania was a powerful country, and it dominated most parts of Europe at that time. The official name of Lithuania is Lietuvos Respublika, which means the Republic of Lithuania.


Luxembourg, one of the smallest countries in the world, is situated in the northwestern part of Europe. Luxembourg shares its boundaries with Belgium, Germany, and France.

Following are the official names of Luxembourg in different languages:

  • Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg in Luxembourgish
  • Grand-Duché de Luxembourg in French
  • Grossherzogtum Luxemburg in German
  • And, all the given name means Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.


Malta, which is an island country, is situated in the central part of the Mediterranean sea. Malta is a small country but strategically an important group of islands that has played a vital role in the struggles and successes of the ruling power for dominating the Mediterranean region. The official name of Malta is Repubblika ta' Malta in Maltese that means the Republic of Malta.


Moldova, a country situated in the Balkan region, is located in the northeastern corner of the Balkan region of the European continent. The official name of Moldova is Republica Moldova, which means the Republic of Moldova.


Montenegro, a country which is located in the Balkan's west-central part, is situated at the southern end of the Dinaric Alps. Montenegro shares its boundaries with the Adriatic Sea, Bosnia, Kosovo, Croatia, Serbia, Albania, and Herzegovina. The official name of Montenegro is Crna Gora.


The Netherlands, a country which is also known as Holland, is situated in the northwestern part of the European continent. The official name of the Netherlands is Koninkrijk der Nederlanden that means Kingdom of the Netherlands.

North Macedonia

North Macedonia, a country also known as the country of Balkans, is situated in the south-central part of the Balkans. The country shares its boundary with Serbia, Greece, Albania, Kosovo, and Bulgaria.

Following are the official names of North Macedonia in different languages:

  • Republika Severna Makedonija in Macedonian Republika e Maqedonisë së Veriut in Albanian
  • And, both above-given names mean the Republic of North Macedonia.


Norway, a country that occupies half of the western part of the Scandinavian Peninsula, is situated in the northern part of Europe. About 2/3rd of the total land area of Norway is covered with mountains. The official name of Norway is Kongeriket Norge that means the Kingdom of Norway.


Romania, a country where the first free election was held in the year 1990, is situated in the southwestern part of the European continent. Romania, in 2004, joined the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), and later in 2007, it became a member of the European Union (EU).


Russia, a country that shares its boundary with both the Asian and European continent, stretched over Northern Asia and Eastern Europe. Russia became itself an independent country after USSR (commonly called as Soviet union) dissolved in 1991.

Following are the official names of Russia in different languages:

  • Rossiyskaya Federatsiya that means Russian Federation
  • And, Rossia, that means Russia.

San Marino

San Marino, the third independent state of the European continent after Vatican City and Monaco, is located on Mount Titano's slopes. The official name of San Marino is Repubblica di San Marino which means the Republic of San Marino.


Serbia, a country that was then part of Yugoslavia for most of the 20th century, is situated in the west-central part of the Balkans. The official name of Serbia is Republika Srbija, which means the Republic of Serbia.


Slovakia, which is a completely landlocked country, is situated in the central part of the European continent. The official name of Slovakia is Slovenská Republika that means the Slovak Republic.


Spain, a country that occupies almost 85 percent of the Iberian Peninsula, country situated in the Southwestern part of the European continent. The official name of Spain is Reino de España, which means the Kingdom of Spain.


Sweden, a country that is situated in the Scandinavian Peninsula, is located in the northern part of the European continent. The ancient name of Sweden was Svithiod. The official name of Sweden was Konungariket Sverige that means the Kingdom of Sweden.


Switzerland, a federated country of Europe, is located in the central part of the European continent. Switzerland is a small area country; its total area is about half of Poland's total area. The official name of Switzerland is the Swiss Confederation.


Turkey, a country that occupies a unique position geographically, is located partially in the Asian continent and partially in the European continent. The official name of Turkey is Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, which means the Republic of Turkey.


Ukraine, the second-largest country in the European continent after Russia, is situated in the eastern part of Europe. The official name of Ukraine is Ukrayina that means Ukraine in English.

United Kingdom

The United Kingdom, an island country, comprises the whole part of Britain, which contains Scotland, England, and Ireland, situated in the northwestern coast part of the European continent's mainland. The official name of the UK (United Kingdom) is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Vatican City (Holy See)

Vatican City, also called Holy See, in full known as State of the Vatican City (Stato Della Città del Vaticano in Italian). It is the smallest independent country of the world and a state located on the west bank of the Tiber River in the European continent.

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