List of Political Parties in India
Political parties are an integral part of a democracy. People engage in legislative processes by choosing leaders to legislative bodies representing a political party. They also encourage individuals to participate in political activities. People's concerns are raised as a result of such efforts. Political parties are thus necessary components of a democratic political system. There are various political parties in India. India has seen a shift in the post-independence period, from the dominance of a single party, the Congress, in the 1950s-1960s to the multiplication of parties in the latter period. A political party is an essential feature of every political system.
A political party is a group of people who form an organization with leaders, followers, policies, and programs. Its supporters may be formal members of the party or supporters who are not formal members. Here are some of the major political parties of the Indian political system.
1. Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) is an Indian political party that promotes pro-Hindu idealogy. The BJP is a by-product of Bharatiya Jana Sangh. The Bharatiya Jana Sangh (established in 1951) was an organization that fought for the reconstruction of India in conformity with Hindu culture. Bharatiya Janata Party got its present-day form in the year 1980. It won its first substantial election victory in 1989, despite a reaction in 1992 following the Babri Masjid's demolition in Ayodhya. The BJP formed a short-lived administration in 1996. With Atal Bihari Vajpayee as Prime Minister, the party and its allies secured a majority government two years later. In 1998, Vajpayee was re-elected Prime Minister as the leader of a coalition comprising the BJP and other parties. Vajpayee resigned from the government when the NDA was defeated in legislative elections in 2004. BJP has been in power since 2014 under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
2. Indian National Congress
The Congress Party is the common name for the Indian National Congress. It is one of the world's oldest political parties. It was established in 1885. After independence, it played a significant role in Indian politics at national and state levels. Under Nehru's leadership, the party attempted to establish a contemporary secular democratic republic in India. It ruled until 1977, again from 1980 to 1989, although its popularity declined eventually. The party is pro-secularism and aims to welfare marginalized groups and minorities. It is a humane supporter of new economic changes. In the 2004 elections, it emerged as the single largest party with 145 seats, and it now serves as the center's opposition.
3. All India Trinamool Congress
Mamata Banerjee launched the All India Trinamool Congress (TMC) on January 1, 1998. Banerjee, who had been a member of the Congress party for over 26 years, created her party in West Bengal and was given the unique emblem of the party, the 'Jora ghas phul.' During the 2011 Assembly elections in West Bengal, the TMC's 'Ma Mati Manush' slogan, which translates as 'Mother, Motherland, and People' given by Mamata Banerjee, became extremely popular. In West Bengal's 2016 Assembly election, people handed the Trinamool Congress a second opportunity with a large mandate. The TMC's success in traditional left-wing strongholds rendered the Left Front almost irrelevant in state politics.
4. The Bahujan Samaj Party
Kanshi Ram formed the Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) in 1984. Its electoral emblem is an elephant. It aspires to represent the Bahujan Samaj, which comprises oppressed classes and minorities. It propagates the BR Ambedkar's beliefs and teachings and takes inspiration from them. The BSP speaks out against the 'Manuwadi' social structure, which is practiced by higher-caste Hindus, particularly Brahmins, and the top crust of society. Its headquarter is in Uttar Pradesh, with a significant presence in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttarakhand, Delhi, and Punjab. Mayawati succeeded Kanshi Ram and got elected as Uttar Pradesh's chief minister and formed a cabinet.
5. Communist Party of India
The Communist Party of India (CPI) is an Indian national political party. CPI was formed in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, in late 1925. Its headquarter is in New Delhi. The CPI's main aim was to develop a movement that blended militant anti-imperialist patriotism with internationalism, similar to Gandhi Ji's and the Indian National Congress's nonviolent civil disobedience (satyagraha) campaigns. Manabendra Nath Roy presented a manifesto in Tashkent (now Uzbekistan) in 1920, forming a communist party in India. After India's independence in 1947, the CPI gained support and followers rapidly.
6. Communist Party of India (Marxist)
The Communist Party of India (Marxist) CPIM, is India's most well-known national political party. It is a political party based on the left ideology with a communist philosophy. The communist philosophy was written by Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin that promoted social justice, equality, and a stateless and classless society. CPIM claims to be an Indian working-class political party fighting for the rights of workers, peasants, and others. The Communist Party of India (CPI) split up in 1964, and its members founded the CPIM. As part of communist party coalitions, the CPIM established a significant presence in West Bengal, Tripura, and Kerala.
7. Nationalist Congress Party (NCP)
The Nationalist Congress Party was formed in the year 1999. A split in the congress party became the ground for the formation of NCP. The party advocates the core values like democracy, equality, social justice, and federalism. The NCP thinks that empowering society's weakest members is essential. It is keen on enacting a law requiring only natural-born Indian citizens to key positions. In Maharashtra, it has been a ruling party in coalitions. Maharashtra was the state where the NCP achieved the most electoral victories. It came in third place in the first election it contested in Maharashtra.
8. All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK)
AIADMK is India's Tamil Nadu-based regional political party. The AIADMK is centered on the idea of safeguarding the Tamil people's interests in India and Sri Lanka. It was founded in 1972 by MGR, a south Indian superstar who left the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). MGR, president of the AIADMK, was elected as Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu in 1977 and served for ten years, gaining the hearts and minds of the people. Later, the party's supremo, Jayalalithaa, took over the reins and helped it grow into a significant power in the state.
9. Janata Dal (United)
Janata Dal (United) is a regional political party in Bihar and Jharkhand. Janata Dal (United) results from the split of The Janata Party, formed by Jayaprakash Narayan. In 1999, the Janata Dal split. One division from the party gave birth to Janata dal (united). The JD (U) now has a strong presence in Bihar, particularly which its leader, Nitish Kumar, is the current Chief Minister. The major opponent of Janata Dal is RJD in Bihar. In the states of Bihar and Jharkhand, where caste is profoundly ingrained, the JD (U) has begun caste-ridden politics.
10. Rashtriya Janata Dal
Lalu Prasad Yadav founded the Rashtriya Janata Dal in 1997. Ex-Janata Dal President Lalu Prasad Yadav was removed from the party because of the corruption charges in Bihar. The RJD's core base is in Bihar, but it has grown in importance in the northeastern states of Manipur and Nagaland. Following in the footsteps of Jay Prakash Narayan, popularly known as Loknayak, a social revolutionary and modern thinker, the RJD has said that it would operate on the principles of social justice, social equality, and Secularism. Years of RJD's misrule in Bihar and corruption charges against Lalu Yadav have damaged the party's traditional support base.
11. Shiromani Akali Dal
The Shiromani Akali Dal, or Akali Dal, is a regional political party in India. The state of Punjab is its primary land of action, and the majority support base is also Punjab. The Akali Dal is a far-right political party and supports a Sikhism-based political ideology. In other words, the Shiromani Akali Dal's main claim to fame is that it caters to the needs of Sikhs in Punjab and across the world. The Shiromani Akali Dal was a component of the Indian independence struggle from the mid-1920s, and its members took part in rallies and civil disobedience activities. Shiromani Akali Dal's principal aim was to promote and preserve the rights of the Sikh minority, notwithstanding its commitment to the larger goals of Indian independence from Britain.
12. Samajwadi Party
The Samajwadi Party (SP) is an Indian regional political party. The Samajwadi Party advocates for the economic and social advancement of minorities, particularly the Other Backward Classes (OBCs) and Muslims. The party is likewise based on Secularism's guiding principles, and it opposes all communal groups. The Samajwadi Party was founded in Lucknow in October 1992 by senior politician and party founder Mulayam Singh Yadav; it was one of many political groups that broke away from the parent organization Janata Dal. The Samajwadi party gets its majority of supporters from Uttar Pradesh. The SP is India's one of the most powerful parties who has made the government in Uttar Pradesh 3 times. It also retained a modest but significant number of Lok Sabha seats.
13. Lok Janshakti Party
The Lok Janshakti Party is an Indian regional political party with a strong influence in Bihar. Its supporters are mostly from the state's so-called lower-caste and Dalit populations. Ram Vilas Paswan created the party in 2000 after a rift in the Janata Dal (United), or JD(U), party. The LJP has primarily concentrated on improving the welfare of lower-caste Hindus, particularly Dalits and Muslim populations in Bihar and neighboring states. Paswan's party claims to be fighting for minorities' rights and advantages in Bihar and Jharkhand. The LJP supports the rights of minorities in sectors like education, employment, agriculture, and other welfare programs through its policies and initiatives for Dalits. The LJP, like many other Indian regional parties, has been ruled by a single family from its inception. Ram Vilas Paswan was the party's founder and long-serving president. His son, Chirag Paswan, was also important, serving as the head of the LJP's legislative board.