List of Ports in India
Custodians of cargo traffic-Ports in India:
From periods of great dynasties such as Gupta, Mauryan, Cholas, Pandyas, transportation through water bodies and expressing their support, sharing goods as a token of love, and bartering of best goods among countries has been playing a huge role in country bonds. Water routes had a major contribution to regulating silk routes. This ritual of trade is continuing till now, where 95 percent of cargo transport is contributed by water route in terms of volume, 68 percent by value. Making this one of the gigantic markets. There are 13 major ports and 187 minor ports. The shipping ministry is a concurrent subject that gives power to both state and central ministries. Major ports are controlled by the central ministry, while minor ports have their power authorized by the state ministry. Let us have a brief look at the 13 major ports in India.
1. Chennai port:(Tamil Nadu)
It is the second major port in India. This was previously called Madras port; this is an artificial port that has increased its cargo transaction with the high peaking graph. This turns out to be the cargo inlet and outlet for complete South India. Due to this port, Chennai is technically called the Gateway of South India; this is situated on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. It possesses good humidity and rainfall per year. In 2006, an earthquake strongly hit the shores as it is a strong seismic point. It majorly contributes to the import of cotton, machinery, and iron. Iron ore is exported from this port. It has exported annual cargo of 51.88 million under the year 2017 to 2018.
2. Cochin Port:(Kerala)
It is located on the beautiful shores of the Arabian Sea, and so to decorate that Cochin is known as Queen of Arabian Sea. This port lies in the two islands of Cochin-Willington Island and Vallarpadam. It gets its unique pride of being India's first transshipment yard, with India's largest transshipment facility called as International Container Transshipment Terminal. This is operated by trustees of Cochin port trust and Dubai ports world under the Ministry of shipping and waterways.
Annual cargo transport of around 32.02 million tonnes takes place here. It has an active record of 90 years. During the British period, there was always a need for a port in India over the shores of the west coast in India. So that's the emergence point of Cochin port, after the build of the Suez Canal. Bunkering and supply of water are greatly assured. There is also a maritime heritage museum on wellington island.
3. Jawaharlal Nehru Port:(Maharashtra)
It is situated in Navi Mumbai, dock queen, and master of our country. This port is also known as Nhava Sheva port. This is situated among the roaring shores of the Arabian Sea. It is also the terminal of the Western Dedicated Freight Corridor. It is India's largest container carrying port in India. It is the major hub port on the west coast of India. This port has been ranked 28th among the top 100 container ports. It is a full-fledged custom zone; it provides services to 30 container freight stations and 52 inland ports.
Major exports are textile from Ahmedabad and Surat, plastics, machinery, and chemicals. Whereas, major imports are chemicals, plastic, vegetable oil, and aluminum, queen.
4. Kandla Port:(Gujarat)
Also called as Deendayal port. It is originated after Pakistan's partition from India when the port of Karachi was parted with Pakistan. It is a major port that exports grains, with the import of petroleum, chemicals, and iron. It has a major economic zone with its energy empowering from the Vadinar refinery. It was built under the port act of 1908.
In the year 2015-16, major transport of 10.6 crore tonnes of cargo took place here. This port includes special facilities such as the provision of extra clean berth and ship repair with bunkering service. Kandla has its special economic zone called as Kandla special economic zone (KASEZ). It has its pride in being the first Export Processing Zone in our country.
5. Kamarajar Port -Chennai (Tamil Nadu)
It was previously called Ennore port, Chennai. It is located on Coromandel Coast. It's the 12th major port in India. It is designed as Asia's energy port with a major attraction of 26000 million rupees. It also includes the facility of satellite mapping to control traffic. It is managed by Chennai port India. The type of harbor is a seaport. Eight berths are available in this port. Their main trade involves coal, automobiles, LPG, chemicals, and mineral ores. It was inaugurated and developed into a plan by Atal Bihari Vajpayee on February 1, 2001.
This has facilities of onshore civil works, navigational services, and tools; it was renamed as Kamarajar port in the year 2014; it has also received Memorandum of excellence certification in the year 2008 to 2009. Ennore Port is the part of a lagoon that receives its source from Kosasthalaiyar and Aranaiyar. It is usually flooded but taken care of by creeks placed. Illegal dumping is banned here by the Tamilnadu pollution board.
6. Mumbai Port:(Maharashtra)
This is situated on the West coast of India, which spreads over 400 square kilometers. Earlier it was called Bombay port. It is managed by Mumbai port trust. Its primary function is to function as Nhava Sheva port and transport bulk cargo. It was reigned by different empires and countries over time, from Marathas to British. It played a major role in transportation. It is also a marriage gift to King Charles 2 of Great Britain to mark his marriage with Infant Catherine of Portugal.
This port has a total of 69 anchorage points.
7. Mormugao Port Trust:(Goa)
It is situated in Goa; it was started in the year 1885. It lies in the river Zuari, which is a naturally protected open-type harbor. According to a maritime treaty by Portuguese and British, this port was constructed along with a meter gauge train. It has a special berth for cruise ships, and this hosts them. The main specialization of this port is ore transport, where they are loaded and collected by Transshippers and handled by a machine ore handling plant (mohp).
Main exports are iron, pharmaceuticals, and frozen fish. And imports were a scrap of iron, potassium carbonate, and steel. It has a mini township with complete facilities in Headland Sada. It received awards for the major traffic growth and result framework document from the union ministry of shipping.
8. New Mangalore port:(Karnataka)
This is the seventh-largest port in India, which resists all kinds of weather. This serves as the single major port of Karnataka. Managed by New Mangalore port trust. This has stayed in function since 1974. It carries 36.5 million tonnes of cargo. The old harbor is used for fishing at the present day. It was inaugurated by Smt. Indira Gandhi. Major export commodities are coffee, cashew, manganese, and granite. This has received the Greentech environment award in the year 2014.
9. Paradip Port (Odisha):
This port is situated in Jagatsinghpur, Odisha. This is the largest deepwater port. It is present along the riverbank of Mahanadi and the Bay of Bengal. Functional since, 12th March 1966, the day on which it was declared open by the Yugoslavian Prime Minister, Peter Stambolic. It is confined under the ports act and is controlled by its Chairman. This port has amusing connectivity of buses and trains through Cuttack and Bhubaneswar.
It is an artificial lagoon-type port protected by breakwaters. It contains storage and freshwater services. This has the nearby coal handling point, oil jetty, and port railways.
10. Port of Kolkata:(West Bengal)
This is also called Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Port; the most amazing thing is that it's the only riverine port in India constructed by the British. It has two dock systems - Kolkata docks and Deepwater docks. Major exports include iron ore, leather, textile. Major imports include wheat, cotton, and iron. This constitutes an annual cargo of 63.9 tonnes. It has connectivity with the Kolkata dock system railway.
11. Port Blair:
It is situated in Andaman and Nicobar. It is connected with the mainland through the sea and airways. It is named after Archibald Blair during the British reign. It experiences a tropical climate predominantly. It has been a major port since 2010; it is operated by Port Blair Trust.
12. Visakhapatnam Port:(Andhra Pradesh)
It is the third-largest state-owned port in India. Present along the eastern coast serves a midway between Chennai and Kolkata. It has an annual cargo ton of 72.72 tonnes. It is planning to have a satellite port in Bheemunipatnam, to reduce traffic and for better service. Iron ore, manganese, coal, and crude oil are important commodities.
13. V. O Chidambaranar Port:(Tamil Nadu)
It has been a major port since 1974. It is the second-largest port in Tamilnadu and the third largest container in India. It is situated in Thoothukudi and has huge foreign trades, and is known for its salt production. Major imports include coal, cement, fertilizer, petroleum by-products, edible oil, and exports include sugar, granite, and limonite ore. It has a cargo of 28.642 million tonnes. It is the only port in south India to provide the weekly container.