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Machine-Independent Optimization

  • Machine independent optimization attempts to improve the intermediate code to get a better target code. The part of the code which is transformed here does not involve any absolute memory location or any CPU registers.
  • The process of intermediate code generation introduces much inefficiency like: using variable instead of constants, extra copies of variable, repeated evaluation of expression. Through the code optimization, you can remove such efficiencies and improves code.
  • It can change the structure of program sometimes of beyond recognition like: unrolls loops, inline functions, eliminates some variables that are programmer defined.

Code Optimization can perform in the following different ways:

(1) Compile Time Evaluation:

(a) z = 5*(45.0/5.0)*r
     Perform 5*(45.0/5.0)*r at compile time.

(b) x = 5.7
     y = x/3.6
    Evaluate x/3.6 as 5.7/3.6 at compile time.

(2) Variable Propagation:

Before Optimization the code is:

After Optimization the code is:

Here, after variable propagation a*b and x*b identified as common sub expression.

(3) Dead code elimination:

Before elimination the code is:

After elimination the code is:

Here, x= b is a dead state because it will never subsequently used in the program. So, we can eliminate this state.

(4) Code Motion:

  • It reduces the evaluation frequency of expression.
  • It brings loop invariant statements out of the loop.

(5) Induction Variable and Strength Reduction:

  • Strength reduction is used to replace the high strength operator by the low strength.
  • An induction variable is used in loop for the following kind of assignment like i = i + constant.

Before reduction the code is:

After Reduction the code is:

Next TopicLoop optimization

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