Mole Concept | What is mole
A mole concept or mole refers to the amount of a substance that has the same number of particles, atoms or molecules as the number of atoms present in 12 grams of C-12 atom, which is an isotope of carbon. So, the mole concept generally tells the number of atoms or such particles which are equal in number to the atoms present in the 12 grams of C-12.
We can say that C-12 atom is taken as a standard to compare the number of atoms or molecules or particles present in the given amount of a substance.
The number of particles present in one mole of any substance = 6.023×1023. This is because the number of atoms present in C12 with mass 12 grams is equal to the 6.023×1023. This number is known as an Avogadro's number. So, 1 mole of a substance will contain Avogadro's no. of particles or 6.0222 x 1023 particles of that substance. It can be atoms, molecules or any other particles. For example, 1 mole of iron will contain 6.0222 x 1023 atoms of iron, similarly, 1 mole of water will contain 6.0222 x 1023 molecules of water. So, we can say that as per the definition of mole, the number of atoms present in 1 mole of iron is equal to the number of atoms of C-12 present in 12 grams of C-12.
So, the mole concept was introduced as a convenient method to expressing the number of particles in the given amount of a substance at an atomic or molecular level such as one gram of a pure element which contains a large number of atoms.
We can say that mole is just like a measurement that comprises two main parts that include the numerical magnitude and the units to express the magnitude. For example, if the mass of a ball is 2 kg, the magnitude is 2 and the unit is kilogram. Similarly, a mole is used as a unit of measurement for measuring the number of elementary entities like atoms, molecules, etc., just like kg is used for measuring weight, and meter is used for measuring length.
Furthermore, the mass of one mole of a substance is called the molar mass of that substance. 1 mole of all elements do not have the same mass, however, they have the same number of atoms. For example, the molar mass of a gold is different from the molar mass of carbon.
The mole concept was introduced by a scientist named Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro. So, the 1 mole of particles 6.0222 x 1023 is known as Avogadro's number which represents 6.0222 x 1023 number of particles just like a pair represents 2 and a dozen represents 12. For example, a boy goes to a shop and ask for Avogadro's number of chocolates then he wants 6.0222 x 1023 chocolates. However, it has no practical use in daily life. So, it is introduced to represent quantities related to atoms, molecules, electrons, etc.
The number 6.0222 x 1023 is also known as the Avogadro constant and is denoted by the symbol NA or N0. The number of moles of a given substance in a pure sample can be represented by the below formula;
n = N/NA
n= number of moles of the substance
N= total number of particles in the given sample
NA is the Avogadro constant or number.
The term 'mole' was introduced by the German chemist Wilhelm Ostwald. He derived this term from the Latin word 'moles' whose meaning is heap or pile.
Furthermore, the number of moles of a molecule may not be equal to the number of moles of its constituting elements. For example, one mole of carbon dioxide contains NA number of CO2 molecules. But, each molecule of carbon dioxide contains 2 oxygen atoms and one carbon atom. So, one mole of CO2 contains 2 moles of oxygen and 1 mole of carbon.
Number of atoms or molecules = number of moles x 6.022 x 1023
Furthermore, the atomic mass unit and mole both are based on the same reference substance C 12, so, the molar mass of a substance in gram is numerically equal to its atomic mass in amu.
Let us solve some numerical to understand the mole concept
Calculate the number of moles in the following cases;
i) In 52 gram of Helium (He)
1 mole of He = 66.0222 x 1023 He atoms
The atomic mass of 1 He atom = 4 u
The mass of 6.0222 x 1023 atoms of He = 4g, which is equal to gram atomic mass of He
1 mole of He = 4 gram or gram atomic mass of He
Now, 4 gram of He = 1 mole
So, 52 gram of He will contain = ¼ x 52 = 13 moles
ii) To find out number of moles in 12.044 x 1023 atoms of He
6.022 x 1023 atom of He is equal to 1 mole of He
So, 12.044 x 1023 atom will be equal to 1/6.022 x 1023 x 12.044 x 1023 moles = 2 moles
iii) Calculate the mass of 0.5 mole of N2 gas
One molecule of N2 gas consists of two N atoms.
mass of one N atoms = 14 u
So, atomic mass of 2 N atoms (one molecule of nitrogen) = 14 u + 14 u = 28 u
Now, one mole of Nitrogen gas will contain 6.0222 x 1023 molecules = 28 g, which is gram molecular mass of Nitrogen gas
So, 1 mole of N2 contains 28 grams of N2 gas
So, 0.5 mole of N gas will contain = 0.5 x 28 g = 14 g of N2 gas
iv) Calculate the mass 0.5 mole of N atoms
Mass of one mole of N atoms or 6.022 x 1023 atoms of N = 14 g
So, mass of 0.5 mole of N atoms will be = ½ x 14 g = 7 g
v) Calculate the mass of 2 moles of Oxygen atoms
Mass of one mole of O atoms or 6.022 x 1023 atoms or O = 16 g
So, mass of 2 mole of O atoms will be = 2 x 16 = 32 g
vi) Calculate mass of 3.011 x 1023 number of N atoms
The mass of 6.022 x 1023 atoms of Nitrogen = 14 g (gram atomic mass of N)
So, mass of 3.011 x 1023 atoms of Nitrogen = (14 / 6.022 x 1023) x 3.011 x 1023 = 7 g
vii) Calculate mass of 6.022 x 1023 number of N2 molecules
Mass of one molecule of Nitrogen is 28 u as there are two N atoms.
So, mass of 6.022 x 1023 molecules of Nitrogen (one mole of molecules molecule) or gram molecular mass of nitrogen molecules = 28 g
viii) Calculate number of particles in 46 g of Na atoms
One mole of Na has 6.022 x 1023 atoms
Mass of one Na atom is 23 u.
Mass of 6.022 x 1023 atoms or 1 mole atoms of Na = 23 g (gram atomic mass)
Now, 23 g contains 6.022 x 1023 atoms or particles
Then, 46 g of Na will contain = (6.022 x 1023 / 23) x 46 = 12.044 x 1023 atoms
ix) Calculate number of molecules in 8 g of O2 molecules
Atomic mass of one Oxygen atom = 16 u
In O2, the mass of two O atoms = 32 u
If we take mass in grams, then mass of 1 mole or 6.022 x 1023 molecules of Oxygen = 32 g
Now, in 32 g we have 6.022 x 1023 molecules
So, in 8 g of O2, we will have (6.022 x 1023 / 32) x 8 = 1.5 x 1023 molecules
x) Calculate number of particles in 0.1 mole of carbon atoms
1 mole of carbon contains 6.022 x 1023 atoms
So, 0.1 mole of carbon will contain = (6.022 x 1023 /1) x 0.1 = 0.6022 x 1023 atoms or particles
xi) Calculate the mass of 0.5 mole of silver
Mass of 1 mole of silver (Ag) = gram atomic mass of Ag = 108 g
So, mass of 0.5 mole of silver (Ag) = (108/1) x 0.5 = 54 g
xii) Calculate the mass of 0.5 mole of sugar ( C12 H22 O11)
Mass of one molecule of sugar = 12 x12 + 1 x 22 +16 x 11
= 144 + 22 + 176 = 342 u
One mole of sugar contains 6.022 x 1023 molecules
Mass of 6.022 x 1023 molecules or 1 mole of sugar = 342 g
So, mass of 0.5 mole of sugar is = 342 x 0.5 = 171 g
Mole concept formulas
There are lots of formulas in mole concept that can be used to solve numerical involving mole concept, such as;
i) To convert mass in grams into moles
Number of moles = given mass in grams/ molar mass in g/mol
n = m / M, where m is mass given in grams and M is molar mass
ii) To convert given number of moles into grams
Mass in grams = number of moles x molar mass g/mol
m = n x M, where n is number of moles and M is molar mass
iii) To convert given number of moles of atom into number of atoms
Number of atoms or molecules = number of moles x Avogadro's number
N = n x N0, where n is number moles and N0 is Avogadro's number, which can also be represented by NA
iv) To convert given number of atoms or molecules into moles
Number of moles = given number of atoms or molecules / Avogadro's number
n = N/ N0, where n is number of moles, N is given number of atoms or molecules and N0 is Avogadro's number
Let us see some solved examples to understand how to use the above formulas;
i) Calculate the number of moles in 52 g or Helium (He)
Atomic mass of He = 4u
Molar mass of He = 4g
So, the number of moles = given mass / molar mass
n = m / M, where m is given mass in grams and M is molar mass
So, n = 52 / 4 = 13 moles
ii) Find number of moles in 12.044 x 1023 number of He atoms
The number of moles = given number of particles / Avogadro's number
n = N/ NA = 12.044 x 1023 / 6.022 x 1023 = 2 moles
iii) Calculate the mass 0.5 mole of N2 gas
Sol. n = m / M (number of moles = mass in grams / molar mass)
Gram molecular mass of N2 gas is 28 g.
m = n x M (M is molar mass = gram molecular mass)
= 0.5 x 28 g = 14 g
iv) Calculate mass of 0.5 mole of N atoms
m = n x M
Here, M is gram atomic mass of N, which is 14 g
m = 0.5 x 14 g = 7 g
v) Calculate mass of 3.011 x 1023 number of N atoms
Number of particles or atoms = number of moles x Avogadro's number
N = n x N0
No. of moles, n = N / N0 = 3.011 x 1023 / 6.022 x 1023 = 0.5 mole
Now, 3.011 x 1023 number of N atoms = 0.5 mole
Now apply formula, m = n x M (mass = number of moles x molar mass)
Here, M is gram atomic mass of N = 14 g
m = 0.5 x 14 = 7 g
vi) Calculate mass of 6.022 x 1023 number of N2 molecules
m = n x M or (mass = number of moles x molar mass)
N = n x N0 (given number of particles = number of moles x Avogadro's no.)
6.002 x 1023 = no of moles x 6.002 x 1023
So, no of moles (n) = 1.
Mass, m = n x M = 1 x 48 g = 48 g. Here, Molar mass = gram molecular mass of Nitrogen, which is 48 g.