From ancient times we witnessed that manufacturing is key to development. Considering this, someone rightly says we can achieve incredible progress with proper manufacturing. Technology is one of humanity's most precious gifts; it helps develop some other things too. Technology is something that helps humanity in every possible way. With the use of technology, people effectively perform their work. It helps people to do complex tasks very efficiently. Because of that, we started several manufacturing units which support the nation's growth and development.
Today's world is witnessing rapid growth and development, and enterprises play a very important role in this changing world. Enterprises make complex tasks very easy to do; they produce those products that are difficult to produce from the hands. With the help of technology, manufacturing units can invent anything that benefits humanity. And out of the developing technologies, the most notable that has shaken the world is the development of small and medium enterprises.
Every day the need for medium and small enterprises is increasing day by day because the needs of the population increase day by day. Now they produce several products that people require. With the help of technology, enterprises produce those products that are tough to produce at any time.
The most notable aspect of manufacturing is the starting of Medium and Small Enterprises. MSME is considered the biggest achievement in the technological field. With less capital, they produced more goods. In today's time, everything is directly or indirectly related to the needs of people. Almost all fields currently design or develop their products by keeping consumers in mind. Manufacturing units develop products that are needed by several technologies.
MSME is not only required to produce products simultaneously, but it also offers jobs to many of the population. People working in MSMEs are semiskilled, providing a livelihood opportunity to less educated or less skilled people. Apart from production, it also contributed to the national economy. This article discusses the definition of MSME, its usage, and some other functions.
Introduction to MSME:
MSME stands for Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises; it is regarded as micro, small, and medium manufacturing and services units. MSME was developed by law Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises Development (MSMED) Act in 2006. The
MSME is classified into two divisions -
Manufacturing Enterprises: Manufacturing MSME units are those enterprises involved in producing and manufacturing goods.
Services Enterprises: Services MSMEs are those which provide services to customers.
There are numerous definitions of MSME, but the GOI provides the most accurate definition. The GOI updated the definition of micro, small, and medium enterprises. The current definition of MSME is based on investment and profit level.
According to the GOI-
1. Micro Enterprises:
Micro Enterprises are those enterprises that have an investment in Plant, Machinery, and Equipment not more than one crore of rupees and their turnover is at most five crore rupees.
2. Small Enterprises:
Small enterprises have investments in Plant, Machinery, and Equipment not more than ten crores of rupees, and their turnover is at most fifty crores.
3. Medium Enterprises:
Medium enterprises have an investment in Plant, Machinery, and Equipment not more than fifty crores of rupees, and their turnover is at most two hundred and fifty crore rupees.
GOI does this classification to remove the complexity in the identification of enterprises. As India is a developing nation, manufacturing and services are very important. So to regulate these micro, small, and medium enterprises, the GOI properly classify them.
Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises(MSMEs) are important to the Indian economy. It is one of the most important sectors that contribute to the growth and development of the Indian economy. MSME overall contributed about 45% of India's manufacturing outlook. It is one of the largest job provider sectors.
MSME provides about 110 million jobs to the people, 22-23% of the total employment in India. This sector is just behind the agriculture sector in providing jobs to the people. There are numerous MSME enterprises, but only about 15% of MSME units have registered with the UDYAM Platform. These sectors need reforms as it is one of the largest drivers of the nation's economy. Heterogeneity, fragmentation, and formalization highlight the need for reforms in this sector.
Significance of MSME:
MSME is one of the key drivers in the nation's progress. It has numerous advantages that support the growth and development of the nation. After introducing MSME as a concept, GOI controls this enterprise properly. Lets us now discuss some of the most discussed advantages of MSME-
1. Boon for Rural Development:
MSME is considered the growth engine for the nation because it enhances nation development by supporting rural development. Large-scale industries need a large amount of capital and workforce to establish. On the other hand, MSME enterprises are low-capital industries. Large-scale industries need ideal locations; for example, they are mainly in urban belts, while MSME industries are located in rural areas. MSMEs support rural development in many ways; they provide job opportunities to many people by earning a livelihood from Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises that contribute to the development of rural areas.
With the advent of Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises, the rural areas also achieve development on socio-economic fronts. They offer jobs and support rural areas' development. Because with the development of Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises in rural areas, other sectors are also developed. For example, for exporting products of MSME, the government developed a road that can be used by other people too. The government also started schools in rural areas, health infrastructure, and numerous other services. All this led to the development of rural areas.
2. Front Runner in Make in India Mission:
MSME is the backbone of the nation's development and progress because it supports other industries too. GOI runs the Make in India program, where industries are promoted to develop products of a higher standard that competes in the world market. To achieve this aim, GOI supports the development of Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises all over India. MSMEs are promoted to develop products that adhere to global standards of quality. Due to large numbers of MSMEs, they acquire center stage in Make in India program.
India imports numerous products from other countries, but they import products due to the need for more manufacturing units. But due to the development of Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises, dependence on imports decreases, and our exports to other countries increase. Our MSME started developing products of higher standard and quality that competes in the world market. Another advantage of our MSME is that they develop products with very little capital, which helps them compete with other countries easily because they are low in cost.
3. Economic Growth:
Numerous sectors contribute to the nation's progress. Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises' most notable advantage or importance is their contribution to economic growth. But with time, the share of manufacturing, especially Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises, is increased tremendously. MSME as a sector contributes around 8% to the nation's GDP. The contribution of MSME increases in GDP because, nowadays, big multinational companies buy products from small enterprises. MSME offers semi-furnished auxiliary products to large multinational companies, linking India's MSME base and big companies. Also, they are fulfilling the demands of a large chunk of the population so that their share of GDP increases. They manufacture large numbers of products in demand and offer these products at low prices compared to imported ones. In this way, it supports the nation's economic growth.
4. Employment Generation:
India is a developing nation, and much of the population is engaged in agriculture. Agriculture in India is the biggest employer; it offers jobs to many people. After agriculture that absorbs the employees in large numbers is the manufacturing sector. Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises are the second biggest job provider after agriculture; they offer jobs or employment to around 11 crore people. Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises offer jobs to semiskilled people with low capital bases. MSMEs in rural areas are the biggest job providers after agriculture.
They help in tackling migration from rural to urban areas. People used to migrate from rural to urban areas in search of jobs, but with the development of the MSME sector in rural areas, migration is reduced. People are getting jobs in their motherland with low skills and poor knowledge. Apart from rural areas, the MSME sector offers jobs to large numbers of people in urban areas. After getting jobs in MSME less educated and semiskilled people can increase their livelihood and raise their standard of living.
5. Promotion of Industries and Innovation:
We already know that Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises are the backbones of rural development. It enhances the development process of rural areas by supporting them in every possible manner. Also, the MSME's role in urban areas must be improved as it supports progress by allowing it to develop special economic zones. It all led to the development of those areas. With the advent of Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises, several other small industries developed because they needed products they acquired from these small industries.
In other words, it further led to the development of numbers in other small industries. Also, the main role played by the MSME sector is in innovation. We already know that innovation is key for further business development. With innovation, the progress of industries also increases. MSME tries to develop those products in demand, and they develop them with low capital using innovation. Innovation helps the MSME sector in reducing capital usage. The MSME sector also supports the development of other small industries through technology transfer. They transfer technology that other small industries require and need more capital to acquire.
6. Inclusive Growth:
The most notable importance of the MSME sector is that it supports inclusive growth in society. Inclusive growth means when every stratum of society equally benefits from the development process and gets the fruits of development. With the advent of Micro, Small, and Medium enterprises in any area, the development of that area started. For example, roads are developed for easy transportation; proper electricity is provided that supports industry work. Apart from that, hospitals and schools were also developed for the family of workers.
MSME led the industrial development of rural areas; they supported the capacity-building program. MSME helps mobilize local resources, creating opportunities for entrepreneurs to develop innovative products. MSME creates an inclusive society with the creation of non-farm livelihood. Because every stratum of society is allowed to work in these Industries. As we witnessed in the agriculture sector, there is no discrimination based on land ownership.
MSME supports balanced regional development by opening industries in every possible region of the country. They provide equal opportunities to women, creating gender equity in the workplace. Allows people to use banking services.
Considering all the above-discussed points, it supports the nation's progress in several folds. It supports regional development, innovation, women empowerment, etc. And because of that, they are called the 'Growth Engine of the Nation'. However, despite being numerous advantages, it suffers from several challenges too.
Challenges to MSME:
MSME is considered the growth engine of a nation because of several advantages, but at the same time, it suffers from several challenges. These challenges reduce the performance of the MSME sector. Most of the developed nations support their small industries through several programs. On the other hand, in India, programs for enhancing the growth of the MSME sector are there but working properly. So we will discuss some of the most notable challenges faced by the MSME sector in India.
1. Financial Constraint:
Capital is key; for any business, capital is the main thing that it needs to grow properly. All firms, whether micro, small, or large, need funds for proper growth. In developing countries, financial constraints are one of the biggest challenges small industries face. In India, timely access to finances for developing small industries is one of the biggest challenges.
Lack of timely access to finance is one of the biggest hindrances in developing the business and MSME sector. As per some studies, it was found that only 16% of small industries get access to timely finance. Smaller firms need to get proper finances in a timely because of that; they are far behind in the development scale.
2. Lack of Innovation:
The second most discussed challenge the MSME sector faces is the need for more innovation. Innovation is the key to further business development as India is a developing nation that needs innovation to become a developed country.
The biggest hurdle in the development of the MSME sector is that it uses outdated technologies for producing products. Most of the MSME sector's products are based on outdated technology.
They need more financial support to acquire new technologies and innovation. To introduce new technologies, the basic need is timely access to finance. As we already discussed, the need for more access to timely finance is also a challenge in developing the MSME sector. Because of a lack of financial support, more innovation is needed. Products developed by any firm have to compete with the product of other firms. As with the increasing globalization, MSME products must compete with foreign products. Because of outdated technologies, they suffer a setback in the competition. Another hurdle contributing to the non-development of the MSME sector is the need for more good entrepreneurs in this sector. Entrepreneurs can develop new products with the use of outdated technologies. Due to a lack of good entrepreneurs, this sector needs to improve. New technologies, tools, and development methods need to be adopted. As a result, MSMEs have had to work hard to fix outdated technology. This also contributes to low productivity levels, especially with larger firms.
3. Majority of Small Firms:
India is one of the most populous countries in the world, with a population of 140 crores. With a large chunk of the population residing in the country, providing jobs to everyone is tough. At the same time, the demand for people increases daily, and to meet the demand, firms are opened. Due to the need for a controlling mechanism, numerous unnecessary firms work in the MSME sector. As per some data, around 80% of MSMEs are small firms. Due to a lack of proper regulation mechanisms, and a communication gap, these firms cannot get advantages provided by the government.
From time to time, the government offers several types of incentives that support firms to progress rapidly. Still, they need to improve due to the need for more proper communication channels. It is also a recurring task for the government to keep a check on these firms. Because these firms also divert the funds of loss-making companies as profits. Due to the large chunk of small firms, they still need to get the advantage of the government's emergency line of credit, stressed asset relief, equity participation, and fund of funds operation. Recently, there have been numerous examples where people create fake balance sheets by using the names of these types of firms. Sometimes in a real sense company is not present, but on the balance sheet, they are making profits.
4. Lack of Formalization Amongst MSMEs:
Almost 86% of manufacturing MSMEs in the country must be registered; they run without any proper regulatory mechanism. The government runs several portals for the registration of these MSME firms. But to need proper communication channels, they are not registered. Sometimes the owners of the firms do not register their firms with the government because they are planning for tax evasion.
Even today, only about 1.1 crore MSMEs are registered with the Goods and Services Tax. The MSME sector needs more formalization for several reasons; they want to evade tax, do not want to follow the norms of the government, developed products according to their technique, etc. Formalization is necessary to develop the MSME sector; it supports the sector by offering numerous advantages. For the development of any sector, formalization is very important as it not only supports the government but also benefits the sector.
Despite these numerous challenges, the MSME sector is the backbone of India's progress. There are numerous advantages associated with the MSME sector, and because of that, they are the nation's growth engine.
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