Difference between Myopia and Hypermetropia
Many of us have studied about the eye in our science classes. The eye is one of the delicate parts of our body. The ailments related to the eye are also delicate. We have always been advised to take care of our eyes for certain reasons. In case of eye ailments, two terms have often been used, i.e., myopia and hypermetropia. These are two kinds of ailments that people go through. These are not proper diseases that are incurable, but these ailments affect the vision of a person. Sometimes, myopia and hypermetropia can be cured by undergoing surgery, but if the situation is much worse, then surgery will not benefit the person.
But before knowing any further, it is important to know what does myopia and hypermetropia mean and what are the key differences between them. So, without further ado, let us take a look at some fundamental differences between them.
||Myopia is defined as a situation wherein the person is able to see nearby objects. The visibility of objects that are distant is not clear. Myopia is also called as 'Nearsightedness.'
||On the other hand, hypermetropia is a situation wherein the person is unable to see the objects nearby. He/ she can only see distant objects. Hypermetropia is also called as 'Farsightedness.'
||In myopia, the image is formed in front of the retina.
||In hypermetropia, the image is formed behind the retina, thereby leading to the loss of vision for the things nearby.
||Myopia has an ill-effect on the eye-ball as well, i.e., the size of the eye-ball increases.
||On the other hand, in hypermetropia, the size of the eye-ball decreases.
||The focal length of the lens decreases in myopia.
||But the focal length of the lens increases in hypermetropia.
||The effects of myopia on the eye are:
- Retinal Detachment
|The effects of hypermetropia include:
- Retinal Detachment
||Myopia is often caused by heredity genes, excessive exposure to sunlight, etc.
||Hypermetropia is often caused by high blood pressure and weak ciliary muscles. Sometimes, it can also be caused genetically.
||The first symptom of myopia is that the person is unable to see the distant objects, i.e., the images of the distant object are blurred.
||The first symptom of hypermetropia is that the person is not able to observe nearby objects, i.e., the images of the nearby objects are blurred.
||Myopia is treated through a concave lens.
||On the other hand, hypermetropia is treated through the convex lens.
||In myopia, the light falls in front of the retina, due to which the distant objects are not visible.
||In hypermetropia, the light falls behind the retina, due to which the nearby objects are not visible.
So, these are some key differences between myopia and hypermetropia. The most important difference is that of the image formation. Well, it is interesting to note that myopia and hypermetropia can be divided into three categories, i.e., low, moderate, and high. So, let us begin by classifying myopia.
- In Low Myopia, the refractive error is > -3.00 D
- In Moderate Myopia, the refractive error ranges from < -3.00 to -6.00 D.
- In High Myopia, the refractive error is < -6.00 D.
Now, let us look at the classification of Hypermetropia.
- In Low Hypermetropia, the refractive error is > +2.00 D.
- In Moderate Hypermetropia, the refractive error ranges from < +2. 00 to +5.00 D.
- In High Hypermetropia, the refractive error is +5.00 D.
In all the above-mentioned situations, the treatment is different. Every situation in dealt is a certain way by the ophthalmologist. There are two kinds of myopia, i.e., High Myopia and Degenerative Myopia.
In High Myopia, the person can suffer from glaucoma, cataract, etc. On the other hand, Degenerative Myopia is a more critical situation, wherein the size o the eyeball increases quickly than other cases of Myopia. Degenerative Myopia is also called as 'Malignant Myopia' and can lead to glaucoma, amblyopia, choroid neovascularization, etc.
Now, let us discuss about these complications more deeply.
- Retinal Detachment: In this condition, the retinal membrane gets attached or detached from the eye.
- Cataract: The eye lens is clouded in this clinical condition.
- Choroid Neovascularization: The abnormal growth of blood vessels in the eye leads to this medical condition.
- Strabismus: In this condition, the person is not able to move his/ her eye in the direction of the object. Strabismus is also called as 'Crossed-Eye.'
- Glaucoma: Glaucoma damages the optic nerve that is required to transfers the signals from the retina.
- Amblyopia: In this medical condition, the vision of the person is diminished. This condition is also called as the 'Lazy-Eye.'
So, these are some of the medical complications that a person can suffer from in case he/ she has myopia or hypermetropia. The treatment of myopia is done through the concave lens, which is also called as the diverging lens. On the other hand, hypermetropia is treated through the convex lens. People suffering from any condition have to undergo surgery. Myopia and hypermetropia are curable. But people must take care of themselves. To avoid getting any of the above-mentioned complications, one must eat green leafy vegetables and fruits enriched in Vitamin A. This will contribute to one's eye health, and such complications will not occur. Thus, in order to avoid certain complications, taking care of your health is essential.