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What is the Full Form of Nb

Nb: Niobium

Nb stands for Niobium. It is a chemical element with the Atomic Symbol Nb. Niobium was also previously known as Columbium (Cb). However, now it is not called Columbium. Also, one should not be confused with Nihonium (symbol Nh and atomic number 113). Niobium possesses Atomic Symbol Nb and has the atomic number 41.

On the periodic table, it lies in between zirconium and molybdenum and below Vanadium (V) and above Tantalum (Ta). It lies in the fifth group and fifth period of the D block. It has the electronic configuration of [Kr] 4d4 5s1, with 2, 8, 18, 12, 1, electrons in each shell.

Nb Full Form

What are the physical properties of Nb or Niobium?

The following are the physical properties of Niobium:

  1. The element is solid in the form at the standard temperature and pressure.
  2. 2750 K (2477 °C, 4491 °F) is the melting point of Niobium.
  3. As possessed individually by every other element, 30 kJ/mol is the latent heat of the fusion of Niobium.
  4. 2750 K (2477 °C, 4491 °F) is the boiling point of Niobium.
  5. The latent heat of vaporization is 689.9 kJ/mol.
  6. The element Niobium has a density of 8.57 g/cm3 as its melting point.

What are the characteristics of Nb or Niobium?

Physical Characteristics of Niobium

The following are the physical characteristics of Niobium:

  1. It is lustrous.
  2. It has lumps of shining crystals in grey along with hexagonal facets in its original condition.
  3. It is ductile.
  4. It is a paramagnetic metal of group 5 of the periodic table, with a typical electronic configuration for group five.
  5. It is said to have a body-centred cubic crystal structure.
  6. It is a superconductor at cryogenic temperature.
  7. It can penetrate magnetically deeper into any element than any other element.
  8. The element is very soft and ductile when it is very pure, and impurities usually help bring its hardness.

Chemical Characteristics of Niobium

The following are the chemical characteristics of Niobium:

  1. The metal gets a tint of blue when it is open to air at room temperature for a long time.
  2. Niobium has the characteristics of being corrosion-resistant.
  3. The metal has the property of superconductivity.
  4. The metal forms dielectric oxide layers.

What are the Isotopes and Isomers of Niobium?

Over 32 radioisotopes had or were discovered till 2003, which varied in their atomic mass, i.e. from 81 to 113. However, Niobium comprises just one stable isotope in the earth's crust, 93Nb, with a half-life of 34.7 million years.

Over 25 nuclear isomers have been discovered so far, which are varied in their atomic mass from 84 to 104. But, similar to isotopes, 93mNb, with a half-life of 16.13 years, is the most stable isomer of Niobium.

What are the applications of Nb or Niobium?

The following are the uses or applications of the Niobium element:

  1. Steel production: Due to its effective micro-alloying element of steel, it helps to form niobium nitride and niobium carbide. This further supports the refining of the grains, prevents recrystallization, and hardens precipitation. This result in a rise in forming ability, strength, toughness and welding capacity. The element is primarily used in modern automobile industries, in addition to pipeline construction as niobium alloys.
  2. Superalloys: Inconel 718 with about 50% nickel, 18.6% chromium, 18.5% iron, 5% niobium, 3.1% molybdenum, 0.9% titanium, and 0.4% aluminium, is one such superalloy. This is used for work in the charging system of the turbo, combustion tool, heat-resisting tools, gas turbines, components of the jet engine, and subassemblies of the rocket.
  3. Superconducting Magnets: For making type II superconductor wire for the superconductor magnet, niobium-titanium alloys, Niobium-germanium (Nb3Ge), niobium-tin (Nb3Sn), are widely used.
  4. The other uses of Niobium or NB are as follows:
    • Electroceramics
    • In mobile telephones
    • In optical modulators
    • Niobium is used in the making (manufacturing) process of surface acoustic wave devices.
    • Many times, along with silver and gold, Niobium was used as precious metal to prepare commemorative coins.

What are the hazards of Nb or Niobium?

The following are the hazards of Niobium:

  1. The dust of Niobium is irritating to human eyes and skin.
  2. The niobium dust carries a potential fire hazard.

It is said that the Niobium in its elemental form is physiologically inert on a larger scale and hence causes no harm.

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