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Parts of CPU

A computer is made up of multiple elements that help in processing and effective functioning.

In this article, we are going to discuss about parts of the CPU. Hope this article will be helpful to you in order to take information about the parts of CPU. So, without delay, let's start the topic.

Before discussing the parts, let's see a brief description of the CPU.


CPU is an acronym for "Central Processing Unit". It is also known as the brain of the computer. CPU receives the instructions from active software and hardware. It produces the output accordingly. In addition, it stores data, instructions, and intermediate results. Thus, CPU controls the operations of all computer parts.

CPU is installed in the motherboard on a specific area known as the CPU socket.

Central Processing Unit (CPU) = Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU) + Control Unit (CU)

It carries out instructions and computer programs and performs all the basic arithmetic and logical operations. CPU has three major types: Transistor CPUs, Small scale integration CPU, and Large scale integration CPUs. Now, let's discuss about the parts of the CPU.


There are three components of a Central Processing Unit (CPU) that are listed as follows -

  • Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU)
  • Control Unit (CU)
  • Memory or storage unit

The parts of the CPU are shown in the below image -

Parts of CPU

Now, let's discuss each component of the CPU in detail.

Arithmetic and Logical Unit (or ALU)

As the name implies, the Arithmetic and Logical Unit (or ALU) performs arithmetic and logical functions. The arithmetic functions are addition, subtraction, multiplication division, and comparisons, whereas the logical functions mainly include selecting, comparing, and merging the data. The complex operations are performed by making repetitive use of the operations mentioned above. ALU is the key part of the CPU.

There can be more than one ALU in a CPU. Furthermore, ALUs can be used for maintaining timers that help run the computer.

Now, move forward and discuss the next part of the Central Processing Unit (CPU), i.e., Control Unit (CU).

Control Unit (CU)

The control Unit is one of the crucial components of the CPU. It instructs the complete computer system to perform a particular task. It controls and coordinates the functioning of all parts of the computer. It takes instructions from memory and then decodes and executes these instructions.

The Control unit mainly regulates and maintains the information's flow across the processor. It does not take part in storing data and processing.

Memory Unit

It is called Random access memory (RAM). This unit temporarily stores data, programs, and intermediate and final results of processing. So, it acts as a temporary storage area that holds the data temporarily, which is used to run the computer.

The memory unit supplies the data to other units of the computer whenever it is required to do so. It is also called primary storage or RAM, main memory, or the internal storage unit. The functions of the memory unit are listed as follows -

  • The data and instructions that are required for processing are stored in a memory unit.
  • All inputs/outputs are transmitted by the main memory.
  • The memory unit also stores the intermediate results and final results of processing.

That's all about the parts of the CPU. So, there are three CPU components: Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU), Control Unit (CU), and memory unit.

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