If you are a grammar expert, you understand that verbs are among the most common sorts of words in statements as well as clauses. Verbs are fascinating words that describe activities or mental processes.
We're not going to talk about verbs at the moment, as fantastic as they are. No, instead, we'll look at participles. Participles resemble verbs and are derived from them. Furthermore, participles have distinctive roles to play in statements and can do a variety of things. We're going to look at a form of participle known as the past participle just now.
What Exactly Is a Past Participle?
Participles are a kind of term that is formed from verbs and can be utilized as an adjective or for building verb tenses.
Past participles serve as adjectives and are utilized to generate perfect verb tenses. We'll go over it in more detail later, but in order to grasp a past participle, you must first understand how it is produced from the root form of a verb. Whenever you look for the verbs in the English dictionary, you'll find out the root form. Leap, for instance, is a verb root form.
There are numerous ways to make the past participles on the basis of the verb:
Several verbs form the past participle by attaching -ed or -d to the ending of the root form. The past participle of the leap, for example, is leaped, and the past participle of the thrill is thrilled.
Few verbs also encompass a -t version, where the spelling can vary. The past participle of learn, for instance, is learnt, and the past participle of doze is dozed.
If a verb finishes in a consonant accompanied by a -y, the -y is removed and the -ied is attached.
For instance, cried is the past participle of cry.
We duplicate the very last consonant into a one-syllable verb which finishes in consonant-vowel-consonant. The past participle of bit, for example, is bitten, while the past participle of stop is stopped.
Also if syllable verb finishes in -w, -x, or -y, the final consonant doesn't get duplicated. The past participle of Plex, for instance, is Plexed, the past participle of slew is slewed, and the past participle of pray is prayed.
We just duplicate the final constant for longer verbs in case the verb finishes in consonant-vowel-consonant and the ending syllable is stressed. The past participle of submit, for instance, is submitted, but the past participle of place is placed.
Regular verbs usually adhere to the guidelines. The past participle form of regular verb is typically often identical to the simple past tense version of the verb. For instance, the ordinary verb address is addressed in both forms - the past participle as well as past tense.
While normal verbs are rather simple, numerous irregular verbs defy each of the above principles. The past participle version of eat, for instance, is eaten. The past participle version of irregular verbs might not be identical to the simple past tense. The past participle of the verb do, for instance, is done, however the simple past tense of do is did. Regrettably, there are no standardized rules for knowing the past participle of an irregular verb. You'll just have to remember them as you study them.
How To Make Use Of Past Participles
Now we understand how to convert verbs to past participles. So, what do we do with them? In general, we utilize past participles in statements and clauses in three ways. Past participles can be employed to produce participle phrases, adjectives, and some verb tenses.
Participle Phrases With Past Participles
The participial phrases, are those that comprise a participle and function as an adjective in a statement. A participle phrase is made up of a participle as well as additional elements of speech like nouns, adverbs, and prepositional phrases. Past participles, like other participles, can be utilized in participle sentences.
Participle phrases can only alter nouns, noun phrases, or the pronouns since they function as adjectives. To minimize confusion, the participle phrase should be placed as closely to the noun/noun phrase/pronoun that it changes as feasible. The following sentences demonstrate the usage of past participles in participle phrases:
A participle phrase may also be utilized to start a sentence. Or else in other cases, we split it from the main statement with the comma. Once again, it is best to insert the changed term as near to the participle phrase as feasible.
When beginning a statement with a participle phrase, make it clear which word or phrase is being changed. Check your statement and rework whether a participle phrase is a dangling modifier. Which implies that does not seem to fit with any of the words in the statement.
Example Of A Dangling Modifier: Fatigued by her truly awful day, the shuttle left.
Fixed Sentence: Fatigued by her truly awful day, Annie watched the shuttle leave.
Adjectives Using Past Participles
Past participles may also be utilized as adjectives by themselves. Past participles, like other adjectives, are normally placed right before the word/words that they modify in this situation. Here are some instances of adjectives made from past participles:
Past participles, like various adjectives, can be a complement that is linked to the subjects by the linking verbs.
Verbs Using Past Participles
When we utilize statements in the passive person, we can (kind of) use past participles as verbs. The subject of a passive voice statement is a recipient of an action instead of a performer. For instance, the statement Lunch was prepared by me is written in the passive form.
The passive voice follows the basic pattern of a subject, a verb, and a past participle. Just the verb be is constructed in the passive voice, and it must follow subject-verb agreement. Irrespective of the tense of the verb be, the past participle is employed. As an example:
You must ensure that a statement uses the passive voice and requires a past participle. If a statement does not use the passive voice, a separate verb tense may be required. As an example:
Passive voice: The rumba will be danced by my fiancee and her. (past participle )
Active voice: My fiancee and she will dance the rumba. (This is not a past participle )
Verbs That Are Irregular
As is often the case, irregular verbs complicate matters. When working with an irregular verb, the passive voice utilizes a past participle that may vary from the past tense form. It is critical to examine the past participle of an irregular verb to ensure that you use the appropriate word. As an example,
Incorrect: Brunch was ate by us.
Correct: Brunch was eaten by us.
Keep in mind that only the passive voice employs a past participle. If a statement is not in the passive voice, it must contain a verb rather than a participle:
For instance ;
Passive voice: Brunch will be eaten by us. (in the past tense )
Active voice: I will eat brunch. (This is not a past participle )
Past Participles Are Used In Verb Tenses.
When it pertains to verb tenses, past participles are very significant. The perfect tenses are formed with verb past participles. The past participles are not utilized alone in this context, but rather with the helping word have/has/had. The below-mentioned statements demonstrate the 3 perfect tenses:
Furthermore, in the perfect continuous verb tenses, the past participle be (been) verb is utilised:
However, let us look at the other tense now;
Present Perfect Continuous Tense: Those rats have been exiting their chambers for as much as I can recollect.
Past Perfect Continuous Tense: The rats had been exiting their chambers for days until we purchased locks.
Future Perfect Continuous Tense: The rats will have been exiting their chambers for sometime by the time we get those door locks.
Why Are Past Participles Important?
Except for those unpleasant irregular verbs, past participles seem exactly like the basic past tense of verbs, but they can accomplish a lot of things that verbs can't. Past participles, like the other forms of participles, are useful since they enable us to construct more complicated sentences by functioning as modifiers. Picture a world without adjectives (horror! ), and you'll see how vital past participles are. Furthermore, past participles are required to utilize the perfect as well as the perfect continuous verb tenses. Without past participles, English grammar would be severely lacking in helpful tools with which to construct complex sentences.
Here is one advantage of using past participles, as well as two writing "traps" :
(Benefit 1) Utilize a fronted participle phrase to effectively communicate 2 things about your subject.
A participle can be used to construct a sentence structure that enables you to efficiently communicate two or more facts about your subject.
As an example:
Infused with both rational thinking and optimism, Patty is always quick to find an expense remedy.
(In this example, a past participle (highlighted) is embedded in a participle phrase (underlined). )
This framework is especially beneficial when preparing employee evaluations. It enables the writer to include an additional observation about the subject in a single statement.
(Trap 1) Beware of misplaced and dangling modifiers !
When employing the sentence construction in "Benefit 1," authors must take care not to create an ambiguous statement by forgetting to place the participle phrase adjacent to the word it is altering. As an example:
Infused with both rational thinking and optimism, senior executives regularly praise Patrica for his efforts to identify an expense remedy. This is incorrect
(In this case, the participle phrase (shaded) might be used to modify "senior executives" rather than "Patrica." This is known as a misplaced modifier.)
A misplaced modifier causes your sentence to be confusing or incorrect. You can eliminate a misplaced modifier by positioning it near to the thing it's changing. Let us now correct the example.
Infused with both rational thinking and optimism, Patrica regularly receives praise from senior executives for his efforts to identify an expense remedy. This is correct
(The participle phrase is now located next to the word "Patrica.") The ambiguity has vanished.)
Occasionally, writers make a grammatical mistake also known as a dangling modifier. The word being changed is not present in the phrase when a dangling modifier is used. As an example:
Infused with both rational thinking and optimism, senior executives regularly offer praise for his efforts to identify an expense solution. Incorrect
(In this case, the participle phrase (shaded) modifies nothing. The name "Patrica" is never mentioned. This is known as a dangling modifier.)
What To Avoid When Using Past Participles
While adjectives are usually easy to utilize, past participles are somewhat more challenging. As previously said, inserting participle phrases in the wrong position or utilizing them as a dangling modifier is a common error with past participles. When utilizing a participle phrase, ensure that it modifies the correct term and that it is evident in the sentence to which word the phrase is intended to relate. The phrases that follow demonstrate both a correct use of a participle phrase and an inappropriate usage of a participle phrase as a misplaced and dangling modifier.
Correct use: Devoted to win the competition, Stephanie ran as quick as she could.
Misplaced modifier: Devoted to win the competition, the spectators watched as Stephanie ran as quick as she could.
Dangling modifier: Devoted to win the competition, her legs moved like fireball.
The Past Participle Vs. The Past Tense
Since they frequently resemble simple past tense verbs, past participles of ordinary verbs can lead to confusion with past tense verbs. There is, a remarkable difference between the two. Past participles are employed as modifiers or to produce perfect verb tenses with an assisting verb. Verbs in the past tense are not. Past tense verbs are, as the name implies, verbs. Verbs are utilized as predicates in statements and clauses, not as modifiers. Verbs describe acts and states of being rather than modifying nouns (at times also pronouns or noun phrases). Obviously, past tense verbs vary significantly from perfect tense verbs.
When it comes to normal verbs, differentiating these two notions is only important when recognizing a word in a sentence. When it pertains to irregular verbs, however, recognizing the distinction between the two is critical since their past tense form and past participle might not be identical. Consider the following examples from two separate sentences:
Past Tense Verb: The pupils blew balloons by the pond.
Past Participle: Blown by happy kids, the balloons trapezed in the air.
If the past participle and past tense verb were reversed in this situation, neither statement would make sense. It is critical to understand when and how to utilize past participles and past tense verbs when employing irregular verbs.
Past Participle Examples