Pharmacology is a field of medicine that focuses on the interaction between drugs and the processes and systems of living organisms, particularly the mechanism of drug action, as well as the therapeutic and other applications of the drugs.
The first Western drug-related treatise, which was an inventory of the herbal plants that were used in traditional medicine, was written during the 1st century AD. It was written by the Greek doctor Dioscorides. The discipline of pharmacology in medicine is derived from the medieval apothecaries who both prepared and prescribed medications. In the 19th century, an apothecary divide was created between those who dealt with patients and those whose focus was mostly on the creation of medicinal compounds. The latter was the foundation of the growing field of pharmacology. Pharmacology that was truly scientific developed only after advancements in biology and chemistry that occurred during the latter part of the 18th century and made it possible for medications to be standardized and then purified. By the early 19th century, French and German chemists had isolated many active substances--morphine, strychnine, atropine, quinine, and many others--from their crude plant sources. The science of pharmacology was officially established in the late 19th century under the leadership of German Oswald Schmeiderberg (1838-1921). He defined the purpose of the discipline and wrote a textbook on Pharmacology, helped establish the first journal of pharmacological research and, more importantly, established a school at Strasbourg that was to become the foundation of the independent departments of the field that were set up across the globe in various universities. In the 20th century and especially in the period after World War II, pharmacological research led to the development of a wide variety of new medications that include antibiotics, like penicillin, and numerous hormonal drugs, including cortisone and insulin. Pharmacology is currently involved in the creation of more efficient versions of these as well as many other medications by chemical synthesis in laboratories. Pharmacology also is looking for the most efficient methods to administer drugs via clinical studies on large numbers of patients.
In the early 20th century years when pharmacologists began to realize there is a connection between the structure and chemical composition of a substance and the effect it has on the body, more attention was paid to the pharmacology aspect, and research papers regularly reported on the modifications in the drug's actions that result from minor changes in their chemical structures. Since the majority of medical substances contain organic compounds, the pharmacologists who conduct such research require knowledge of organic chemistry.
Research in basic pharmacology is conducted in research labs of chemical and pharmaceutical companies. In the years following 1930, this field of pharmacological research experienced massive and rapid growth, particularly within regions like the United States and Europe.
Pharmacologists work in the industry also with the extensive tests that have to be performed before promising new medicines to be put into use in medical settings. Comprehensive studies of the effects of a drug's actions on every organ and system of animals that are in the laboratory are required for a physician to accurately determine the effect of the substance on the patient and the potential dangers to human beings in general. The pharmacologist is not the only person to examine the effects of drugs on patients. This is conducted only following thorough tests on animals and is generally conducted by physicians to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the new drugs. Continuous testing is also necessary for the regular surveillance and standardization of drugs as well as their quality and potency.
Main concepts of Pharmacology
Drug development includes many stages. It's extremely difficult and costly. The process begins with the creation of new chemical compounds or the extraction of medicinal compounds from different sources (plants and animal tissues, microbial culture and human cells). The next phase of the development of drugs is preclinical testing by conducting biochemical, pharmacological and toxicological studies, research on pharmaceutical technology and pharmacokinetics (methods of formulation). The clinical testing phase begins in Phase I. In this phase, the new drug is tested in healthy individuals and aims to determine if the effects that are observed in animal studies also happen in humans. In Phase II, the potential drug is tested on selected patients to determine its effectiveness as a treatment for the disease that it's intended to treat. In Phase III, the drug is evaluated on a large number of patients and then compared to the standard treatment. In clinical trials, many drugs are discovered to be unsuitable. It is well-known that just one drug remains out of about 10,000 substances that were newly synthesized. The decision to approve a brand-new drug is taken by a National Regulatory Body. Following approval, the newly approved drug can be sold under the name of a trade mark. Post-licensing studies that last for a long time are the aim of Phase IV clinical trials.
Demand of Pharmacologists
In the past few times, there has been an increase in the world. MS degree in Pharmacology graduates will comprise the majority of the workforce in preclinical and clinical areas of drug safety. Many of them go on to work in industrial or academic locations in different areas of medical research. Meanwhile, some continue their studies through medical schools and PhD programs.
Importance of Pharmacologists
If you visit the dentist and receive an injection for numbing your mouth, it is an application of pharmacology. If you are taking an anti-depressant, there is pharmacology. The medications used to treat Hay Fever, antibiotics, as well as cancer treatments, and various other drugs, were created by pharmacists. Thousands of patients take them each day.
Our toxicology and pharmacology undergraduate and graduate degree programmers offer solid foundations in biomedical science and help students prepare for a wide range of career options. Hospitals, universities, pharmaceutical and biotech companies, including private and public research organizations, consulting companies as well as government agencies all employ graduates and their associates, both in India and abroad. Certain graduates are accepted into advanced degree programs like medicine (MD) or pharmacy (PharmD or BSc Pharma), as well as the field of dentistry (DDS). The graduates of these programs can find employment in a variety of positions based on their qualifications and their interests. Participation in chemical and drug lab and/or clinical research (in industry or academia), design and conducting of clinical trials that aim at making new therapeutics available for sale as well as assessing the safety of chemical and pharmaceutical drugs and safety, teaching, marketing/sales of therapeutics, and medical/scientific communications are just some of the possibilities.
1. Research and Development
Every industry is heavily dependent on research. In the field of pharmacy, research is more vital. Every industry wants to conduct deep research and produce innovative, groundbreaking discoveries. This is to ensure that the most effective solutions to the most frequent tethering problems are readily available. Candidates may work as Research Associates or Research Scientists and project managers (R&D), Academic Researchers, Pharmacologists working in the area that involves research and development, and toxicologists, among others.
2. Pharmacology Production and Manufacturing
This course will help you to build an entrepreneurial and management career. There are many pharmaceutical companies today that have divided their employees into groups according to the nature of their activities. In these businesses, production departments are just as crucial in importance as the R&D department. This is why it is a prime location to find a lucrative job. Students can get an MBA degree at some of the Best Management Colleges in India to be able to secure top management positions in the manufacturing sector.
The job openings in this department include:
3. Analysis and Testing
The failure of incorrect formulations can lead to death in the industry of pharmaceuticals. To prevent such incidents, firms conduct extensive research and test drugs prior to releasing them in the market. For instance, consider the vaccination that people were anticipating over a period of time during the Covid crisis. The tests are vital and could take months or even years to finish! This is to ensure that the quality of the drug and its effectiveness meet the standards and requirements.
Options for employment under this department include:
4. Sales & Marketing in Pharmacology
Furthermore, just like any other enterprise that produces goods or services, marketing is an essential instrument to promote pharmaceuticals. Therefore, pharmaceutical companies require employees who know the industry but also have a knack for marketing to be able to sell their products.
The most desirable jobs that fall into this category include:
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