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Phrases and Clauses Exercises

I. A phrase is a group of words that may include nouns or verbals but may not include a subject performing a verb. The following are some phrases:

  1. leaving behind the cat
  2. slamming into a wall
  3. before the initial exam
  4. after the destruction
  5. Because of her brilliant smile

These examples contain nouns (cat, wall, exam, destruction). You have a few verbs (leaving, slamming), but the noun is never used as a subject doing a predicate verb. All of them are phrases.

Phrases and Clauses Exercises

II. A clause is a group of words containing a subject actively performing a verb. The following are some clause examples:

  1. since she laughs at hesitant men .
  2. I dislike people with bad character .
  3. When the sages go rallying in .

She, I, Sages is the subject in the above; examples, whereas the terms laughs, dislikes, and go rallying are the predicate verb.

III. An independent clause is one that can exist by itself and form a comprehensive sentence with punctuation.

The following are separate clauses:

  1. I dislike people of bad character .
  2. Scott Simps is scarier than a Tiger !

We may easily convert isolated clauses into entire sentences by adding proper punctuation marks. "I dislike people of bad character," we could say.

"Scott Simps is scarier than a Tiger!" we could say. We call them independent clauses because they can stand on their own, without any additional words, and form whole sentences.

IV. Dependent sentences usually have a subject performing the verb, but they are preceded by a subordinate conjunction. That subordinate conjunction implies that the clause cannot stand exist as a complete sentence.

Rather, the dependent clause is dependent on another phrase; it cannot form a complete sentence on its own, despite having a subject performing a verb.

Subordinating Conjunctions and Dependent Words include since, until, because, until, when, if, and so on.

These clauses do not, by themselves, form full thoughts or sentences.

The subordinate conjunctions since, when, and because lead the audience to expect the speaker to offer some additional information. The thought is incomplete.

Exercise 1

Identify whether the underlined groups of words are phrases or clauses.

1. She studied under the street light .

2. Put the cups on the desk .

3. He glanced out of the windows .

4. I know a woman who works in Delhi Police .

5. We cannot live without oxygen or fresh air .

6. She wears a bracelet which is made of silver .

7. They cannot go while it is snowing .

8. I have no clue what he did with those funds.

9. The woman whom I met on the metro was a farmer .

10. Planets revolve around the sun .

Answers

1. Phrase

2. Phrase

3. Phrase

4. Clause

5. Phrase

6. Clause

7. Clause

8. Clause

9. Clause

10. Phrase

Exercise - 2

In the following sentences, Identify whether the highlighted portion is a Phrase or Clause .

1. Faced with numerous challenges, I decided to take assistance from a Psychologist .

2. He came to work on time in spite of missing the bus .

3. Before eating any supplement, I always talk to my nutritionist .

4. Mary lived outside her home for 5 years .

5. In the dawn, it's ideal to get up early .

6. They were offended by the little kid yelling loudly .

7. I like the educator who is wearing spectacles .

Answers- Exercise 2

1. Phrase

The highlighted part is a phrase since the above sentence has no subject-verb, and it is an incomplete thought. So it is a past participle phrase .

2. Clause

The above section has a subject-verb and is complete in itself, so it is a clause .

3. Clause

This is a clause since it has subject-verb and is complete in itself .

4. Phrase

Since there is no subject-verb, in this and this is a prepositional phrase that acts as an adverb .

5. Clause

It has a subject-verb and is complete in itself, so it is a clause .

6. Phrase

In this section, there is no subject-verb; there is a prepositional phrase, as the section begins with the preposition 'by' .

7. The highlighted portion has both the subject and the verb. So it is a complete concept. Thus it is a clause .

Exercise - 3

In the following sentences, identify the independent clauses and dependent clauses.

  1. After we finished the assignment. Mrs. Sharma makes wonderful dishes .
  2. I went to see him .
  3. While we were driving .
  4. Since we went there yesterday .
  5. I took the main road, which was repaired yesterday .
  6. The kid who was peeping in the window has left this letter.
  7. She enjoys dancing in the rain.
  8. The novel, which was on the desk, is brilliantly written.
  9. Since the play was fascinating .
  10. If we came back on time .

Answers, Exercise 3

  1. This is a Dependent clause since it is not making complete sense and cannot exist independently .
  2. This is an Independent Clause since it can exist on its own and makes sense independently .
  3. This is a Dependent clause since it is not making complete sense and cannot exist independently .
  4. This is a dependent clause since it is not making complete sense and cannot exist independently .
  5. I took the main road- This is an independent clause, whereas which was repaired yesterday- is a dependent clause .
  6. Who was peeping in the window is a dependent clause since it is not making complete sense and cannot exist independently .
  7. It is an independent Clause since it can exist on its own and makes sense independently .
  8. Which was on the desk is a dependent clause since it is not making complete sense and cannot exist independently .
  9. This is a Dependent clause since it is not making complete sense and cannot exist independently .
  10. This is a Dependent clause since it is not making complete sense and cannot exist independently .

Exercise 4

In the following sentences, determine whether it is a phrase, independent clause, or dependent clause.

1. Throwing sheets on roads .

2. While stones covered the street .

3. Nobody resides there .

4. Besides old cars and bikes .

5. Unless it snows .

6. Swimming can be fun .

7. That we purchased yesterday .

8. Which disappeared .

9. Walk fast .

10. To jump quickly .

Answers, Exercise 4

1. It is a phrase; it doesn't contain a subject or verb .

2. It is a dependent Clause, as it is not making complete sense independently .

3. It is an independent Clause; it makes complete sense on its own .

4. It is a phrase, as it doesn't contain a subject or verb .

5. It is a dependent Clause, as it is not making complete sense independently .

6. It is an Independent Clause since it makes complete sense on its own .

7. It is a dependent Clause, as it is not making complete sense independently .

8. It is a dependent Clause, as it is not making complete sense independently .

9. It is an Independent Clause since it makes complete sense on its own .

10. It is a phrase; it doesn't contain a subject or verb .

Exercise 5

In the following sentences, underline the dependent clause and the subordinating words.

1. I said no to the party because I had some pending work .

2. I could have passed brilliantly if I had studied properly .

3. After I complete my assignment, I'll get the offer for work .

4. They were playing video games while he was sleeping .

5. Her project would have been brilliant if she would have written the stats .

6. Unless you return the book, you'll have to clear all the dues .

7. If it is pleasant tomorrow, we will go shopping .

8. I thought that she was going to stay with us .

9. You can't achieve your goal when you are unfocused .

10. He took his toy, although he preferred reading books .

Answers, Exercise 5

1. 'Because' is the subordinating word for the dependent clause 'because I had some pending work .

2. 'If' is the subordinating word for the dependent clause if I had studied properly .

3. 'After' is the subordinating word for the dependent clause 'after I complete my assignment. '

4. 'While' is the subordinating word for the dependent clause while he was sleeping .

5. 'If' is the subordinating word for the dependent clause 'if she would have written the stats. '

6. 'Unless' is the subordinating word for the dependent clause Unless you return the book .

7. 'If' is the subordinating word for the dependent clause 'If it is pleasant tomorrow. '

8. 'That' is the subordinating word for the dependent clause that she was going to stay with us .

9. 'When' is the subordinating word for the dependent clause when you are unfocused .

10. 'Although' is the subordinating word for the dependent clause, 'although he preferred reading books. '


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