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Prokaryotes Vs. Eukaryotes

What is Prokaryote?

The term "Prokaryote" is derived from the Greek word "pro," which means before, and karyon, which means kernel. Thus, it translates to before "nuclei."

The Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms with no membrane-bound structures, the nucleus being the most notable. Prokaryotes cells are typically simple, small cells with a diameter of 0.1-5μm.

Despite the lack of membrane-bound structures in prokaryotic cells, they do have different cellular areas. A nucleoid is a place in prokaryotic cells where DNA bundles together. Examples of Prokaryotes; Bacteria and Archaea.

Prokaryotes Vs. Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes are one of the oldest living organisms' groupings globally, with fossil records extending back nearly 3.5 billion years. These prokaryotes flourished in the earth's prehistoric environments, with few relying on chemical energy and others on sunlight. For millions of years, the extremophiles are living, evolving and adapting. These organisms may have given rise to eukaryotes, according to scientists.

Eukaryotes cells are larger and more complex, whereas prokaryotic cells are tiny and less complex. Another distinguishing feature of prokaryotic cells is that they lack membrane-bound cell organelles like the nucleus. In this, Reproduction occurs via the process of binary fission.

Fundamentally, prokaryotes have a case encompassing its whole body and the ability to act as a protective coat. This is significant in terms of phagocytosis prevention (where the bacteria get engulfed by other eukaryotic cells, like macrophages). The pilus is a hair-like appendage present on the outer surface of most of the prokaryotes that aid the organism in adapting to various surroundings. The pilus basically opposes being flushed; hence, it is also known as attachment pili. It is ordinarily seen in bacteria.

The cell wall, which provides the cell strength and rigidity, is found directly under the protective coating. The cytoplasm, which aids in cell formation, is found farther down inside the plasma membrane, which divides the cell's internal substance from the external climate. The cytoplasm contains ribosomes, which play a key role in protein synthesis. It's also one of the tiniest components of the cell.

In some prokaryotic cells, there is a special structure called mesosomes that help in cellular respiration. Plasmids, which are tiny, circular pieces of DNA, are found in most prokaryotes. In order to help with locomotion, flagella are present; pilus can also be used as a locomotion aid.

Features of Prokaryotes

The following are the features of prokaryotes:

  1. Nucleoid: - The nucleoid is the center part of the cell that comprises the DNA.
  2. Ribosome: - Protein synthesis is carried out by ribosomes.
  3. Cell Membrane: - A cell membrane, commonly known as the plasma membrane, which separated the cell from the outside environment.
  4. Cell Wall: - The cell wall is responsible for giving structure and safety from the outside environment. Peptidoglycans are a type of cell wall made up of carbohydrates and proteins that most bacteria contain.
  5. Pili: - Pili is rod-shaped structures that perform a range of tasks, including attachment and DNA transfer.
  6. Capsule: - The capsule is a coating of carbohydrates that encompasses the cell wall in few bacteria. With the help of the capsule, the bacteria attach to surfaces.
  7. Flagella: - Flagella are thin, and its structure is like a tail which helps in movement.
  8. Fimbriae: - Fimbriae are thin, and its structure is like a hair that helps with cellular attachment.

What is Eukaryote?

The term "Eukaryotes" is derived from the Greek words "eu," which means "good," and "karyon," which means "kernel," therefore, translating to "good or true nuclei." Eukaryotes differ from prokaryotes in that they more complex and much extensive. Except for the kingdom Monera, they include practically all of the primary kingdoms.

The plasma membrane is supported and protected by a cell wall in eukaryotes. The plasma membrane surrounds the cell and regulates the inflow and outflow of specific substances.

Prokaryotes Vs. Eukaryotes

The nucleus comprises DNA, which is responsible for storing all genetic information. The nucleus is surrounding the nucleus. The nucleus is a component of the nucleus that plays an essential function in synthesizing proteins. Eukaryotic cells also have mitochondria, which produce energy that is then used by the cell.

There is a nucleus in eukaryotes and other organelles enclosed by a plasma membrane in their cells. Organelles are the internal structures that perform a variety of tasks, such as protein synthesis and energy production.

Its only exists in plant cells; chloroplasts are the subcellular sites of photosynthesis. The endoplasmic reticulum aids in the movement of materials. In addition to that they are also other cell organelles which perform several other functions including ribosome, Lysosomes, chromosomes. centrosomes, Golgi, cytoplasm, and Golgi.

Eukaryotic cells are large (between 10 and 100 µm) and complex. While the majority of eukaryotes are multicellular organisms, few are single-cell eukaryotes. For Example; Animals, plants, protozoans, algae, and fungi.

Eukaryotic Cell Features

Every membrane-bound structure in a eukaryotic cell performs a distinct cellular function. Here are many of the fundamental components of eukaryotic cells.

  • Nucleus: - In the nucleus, genetic information is stored in the form of chromatin form.
  • Nucleolus: - The nucleolus is a component of eukaryotic cells that produce ribosomal RNA and is found inside the nucleus.
  • Plasma Membrane: - The plasma membrane means a phospholipid bilayer that shelters the entire cell and all of its organelles.
  • Cytoskeleton or Cell Wall: - The cytoskeleton, often known as the cell wall, offers structure, permits cell movement, and aids in cell division.
  • Ribosomes: - Protein synthesis is carried out by ribosomes.
  • Mitochondria: - Mitochondria also called the cell's powerhouses, and it is responsible for energy production.
  • Cytoplasm: - Cytoplasm means the region between the nuclear envelope and the plasma membrane in a cell.
  • Cytosol: - The gel-like substance within the cells that contains the organelles is referred to as Cytosol.
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum: - The endoplasmic reticulum is an organelle that is responsible for protein maturation and transportation.
  • Vesicles and Vacuoles: - Vesicles and vacuoles are membrane-bound sacs that help in transport and storage.

Prokaryote vs. Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes Vs. Eukaryotes
Parameters Prokaryotes Eukaryotes
Type of cell Prokaryotes are always unicellular. Eukaryotes can be Unicellular and Multicellular.
Cell wall Cell walls are common in prokaryotes and are chemically complex in nature. Cell walls are commonly do not found in Eukaryotes, but when it is existing, then it is chemically simple in nature.
Cell size In prokaryotes, the cell size ranges from 0.2 µm to 2.0µm in diameter. In Eukaryotes, the cell size ranges from 10 µm to 100 µm in diameter.
Nucleus The nucleus is absent in prokaryotes. In prokaryotes, there is a nucleoid region in the cell. The nucleus is present in eukaryotes.
DNA arrangement Circular Linear
Cytoplasm In prokaryotes, the cytoplasm is present, but the cell organelle is absent. In eukaryotes, the cytoplasm and cell organelle both are present.
Ribosome In prokaryotes, the ribosomes are Smaller. In eukaryotes, the ribosomes are larger.
Lysosome Lysosomes and centrosomes are absent in prokaryotes. Lysosomes and centrosomes are present in eukaryotes.
Endoplasmic reticulum In prokaryotes, the endoplasmic reticulum is absent. In eukaryotes, the endoplasmic reticulum is present.
Mitochondria Absent Present
Reproduction Asexual Both asexual as well as sexual.
Flagella In prokaryotes, the size of flagella is small. In eukaryotes, the size of flagella is large.
Cell division Cell division in prokaryotes occurs by binary fission. In eukaryotes, cell division is through mitosis.
Plasmids Present Plasmids are rarely found in eukaryotes.
Example Bacteria and Archaea. Plant and Animal cell.
Size (diameter) 0.1-5µm 10-100µm

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