Roman Numerals
Ancient Romans used a special notation to represent the numbers is known as roman numerals. It is an ancient way of writing numbers that originated in ancient Rome.
The Romans had developed roman numerals for trading purposes so that they can price different goods and services. At the present time, the roman numbers were used throughout the Roman Empire in daily life.
Roman Numerals Symbol
There are seven different letters to represent roman numerals. These letters are used to make thousands of numbers. We can write roman numerals in uppercase and lowercase letters. The following table represents the number and corresponding roman numerals in upper and lowercase letters.
Arabic Number 
1 
5 
10 
50 
100 
500 
100 
Uppercase Representation 
I 
V 
X 
L 
C 
D 
M 
Lowercase Representation 
i 
v 
x 
l 
c 
d 
m 
Basic Combinations of Roman Numerals
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
I 
II 
III 
IV 
V 
VI 
VII 
VIII 
IX 
10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 
X 
XX 
XXX 
XL 
L 
LX 
LXX 
LXXX 
XC 
100 
200 
300 
400 
500 
600 
700 
800 
900 
C 
CC 
CCC 
CD 
D 
DC 
DCC 
DCCC 
CM 
Note: There is no symbol for zero.
Rules of Conversion
 The symbol is added if the symbol appears after a larger or equal symbol. Consider the following example:
VIII = V + III = 5 + 3 = 8
It means that the symbol III (three) appears after the symbol V (five) and V is larger than III, so we have added the symbol.
Consider another example:
LVI = L + V + I = 50 + 5 + 1 = 56
In the above example, the symbol V and I appear after the symbol L and L is larger than V and I, so we have added the symbol.
 The symbol is subtracted if the symbol appears before a larger symbol. Consider the following example:
IV = V  I = 5  1 = 4
In the above example, the symbol I appear before the larger symbol V. It means we have to subtract the symbol I form the symbol V. Therefore, the symbol IV represents 4.
Consider another example:
XLIV = L  X + V  I = 50 10 + 5  1 = 44
Let's understand the above example carefully.
In the above example, there are four symbol X, L, I, V, having values 10, 50, 1, and 5, respectively. The symbol L is the largest symbol among them. The symbol X appears before the symbol L, so we have to subtract the symbol X from the symbol L. It means:
L  X = 50 10 = 40
Similarly, the symbol I appears before the symbol V, so we have to subtract the symbol I from the symbol V. It means:
V  I = 5 1 = 4
Now we will add 4 to the 40 because the value 4 appears after the larger symbol. Therefore, the symbol XLIV represents the number 44.
Remember: In roman numerals, the same symbol does not use more than three times in a row. For example, we cannot use IIII to represent the 4. But in clocks, it is used.
Convert a Number into Roman Numerals
If we want to convert a number into Roman numeral, we should follow the steps given below
 First, break the given number into thousands, hundreds, tens, and
 Write the corresponding roman numerals.
 Combine the whole roman numerals.
Let's understand the above steps through an example.
Example: Convert 1792 into roman numerals.
Break the 1792 into thousands, hundreds, tens and ones.
1792 = 1000 + 700 + 90 + 2
Write the corresponding roman numerals, separately.
1792 = 1000 + 700 + 90 + 2
DCC XC II
Combine the whole numeral numbers.
1792 = MDCCXCII
Representation of Large Roman Numerals
If the number is greater than 1,000, draw a bar or line over the symbol. It represents that the number is 1000 times. It is not widely used.
For example, if we want to represent 5,000 in the roman numeral, first write the roman representation of 5 that is V and draw a bar over the symbol that is v. The symbol v represents 5,000.
Similarly, we can put a bar on any roman numeral to represent a big number. In the following list, we have listed some large numbers.
Consider the above table:
M represents the 1,000, and the bar represents 1000 times of the number. It means 1000 times of the 1,000 i.e. 1,000,000. So, the symbol M represents the ten lakhs in roman numeral.
Zero and Fractions
In roman numerals, fractions were usually used in currency. The most commonly used fractions were twelfths and halves. A dot (•) represents the twelfth. It is known as uncia. The Latin letter S represents a half, which means semis.
Remember that there is no roman numeral to represent zero. It is because the roman numerals developed for trading, and there was no need to represent zero. They were used a Latin word nulla to represent the zero.
Uses of Roman Numerals
Roman numerals are used in our daily life. We can find it in the following places:
 It is used in books to represent page numbers of primary pages.
 It is used in fancy clocks and watches.
 It is also used in sequels of films, books, and games.
 To represent the historical events. For example, World War II.
 The Monarchs are usually numbered in romans. For example, Louis XIV of France.
 Royal families also use this system to represent their names if the two people have the same name in the family. For example, in a family, the son's name is Paul Jones, and his father and grandfather were also named Paul Jones, then the name will be Paul Jones I (grandfather), Paul Jones II (father), and Paul Jones III (son).
Roman Numerals Chart
1 
I 
26 
XXVI 
51 
LI 
76 
LXXVI 
2 
II 
27 
XXVII 
52 
LII 
77 
LXXVII 
3 
III 
28 
XXVIII 
53 
LIII 
78 
LXXVIII 
4 
IV 
29 
XXIX 
54 
LIV 
79 
LXXIX 
5 
V 
30 
XXX 
55 
LV 
80 
LXXX 
6 
VI 
31 
XXXI 
56 
LVI 
81 
LXXXI 
7 
VII 
32 
XXXII 
57 
LVII 
82 
LXXXII 
8 
VIII 
33 
XXXIII 
58 
LVIII 
83 
LXXXIII 
9 
IX 
34 
XXXIV 
59 
LIX 
84 
LXXXIV 
10 
X 
35 
XXXV 
60 
LX 
85 
LXXXV 
11 
XI 
36 
XXXVI 
61 
LXI 
86 
LXXXVI 
12 
XII 
37 
XXXVII 
62 
LXII 
87 
LXXXVII 
13 
XIII 
38 
XXXVIII 
63 
LXIII 
88 
LXXXVIII 
14 
XIV 
39 
XXXIX 
64 
LXIV 
89 
LXXXIX 
15 
XV 
40 
XL 
65 
LXV 
90 
XC 
16 
XVI 
41 
XLI 
66 
LXVI 
91 
XCI 
17 
XVII 
42 
XLII 
67 
LXVII 
92 
XCII 
18 
XVIII 
43 
XLIII 
68 
LXVIII 
93 
XCIII 
19 
XIX 
44 
XLIV 
69 
LXIX 
94 
XCIV 
20 
XX 
45 
XLV 
70 
LXX 
95 
XCV 
21 
XXI 
46 
XLVI 
71 
LXXI 
96 
XCVI 
22 
XXII 
47 
XLVII 
72 
LXXII 
97 
XCVII 
23 
XXIII 
48 
XLVIII 
73 
LXXIII 
98 
XCVIII 
24 
XXIV 
49 
XLIX 
74 
LXXIV 
99 
XCIX 
25 
XXV 
50 
L 
75 
LXXV 
100 
C 
