Difference between Seeds and Spores
Spores and seeds are the most common reproductive structures found in plants, fungi and some bacteria. They undergo germination to produce new plants or organisms of the same species. Although they serve the same purpose, they are different from each other. Let us see how seeds differ from spores!
A seed is a ripened ovule with a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat. It is the ovule present in the ovary that develops into the seed after fertilization. A seed basically has three parts embryo, endosperm and seed coat, however some seeds lack endosperm. The endosperm is a source of stored food for the growing embryo and the seed coat comprises one or more protective layers or seed coats to ensure embryo grows into a new plant without being damaged. It is the integuments of the ovule that develop into seed coats. The outer seed coat is called the testa, and the inner seed coat is called the tegmen. In monocots, the seeds have only one cotyledon, whereas, in dicots a seed has two cotyledons.
A spore is a reproductive structure, cell or organ of a plant, fungi and algae. It is capable of reproducing and growing into a new plant without involving fusion with other reproductive structures. So, spores are units of asexual reproduction in non-flowering plants, fungi, bacteria, algae etc.
The spores can be of two types: homosporous and heterosporous. In other words, depending on the types of spores produced by a plant, it can be homosporous or heterosporous. If a plant produces only one type of spores, it is known as homospory and if it produces two types of spores (male and female spores), it is known as heterospory.
Based on the above information, some of the key differences between Spores and Seeds are as follows: