Top 10 Scientists in India
Science and Technology have been an important part of India. The science and technology sector has always been India's fastest-growing sector. India is presently ranked third in the world for the most attractive investment destinations for technological transactions, implying that India's scientific areas have advanced significantly. India has risen to the top of the scientific research rankings in the twenty-first century. To bring India to this top position, many Indian scientists worked around it. Let's look at the top 10 scientists of India.
1. Dr. C.V. Raman
Dr. C.V. Raman (Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman) was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930 for his revolutionary work on light scattering. Born in Tiruchirapalli on November 7, 1888, he was the first Asian and non-White beneficiary of the Nobel Prize in the Science field. Raman also studied the acoustics of musical instruments. He was the first to investigate the harmonic aspect of tabla and mridangam drum sounds.
He found that some deflected light changes wavelength when it passes through a transparent medium. This phenomenon, now known as Raman scattering, is caused by the Raman effect.
In October 1970, he passed out in his laboratory. He was rushed to the hospital, where physicians calculated his chances of survival were only four hours. After a few days, he refused to stay in the hospital, choosing to die surrounded by his flowers on the Institute's grounds (the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore). He died of natural causes on November 21, 1970.
2. Homi J. Bhabha
Homi Jehangir Bhabha was born in Bombay on October 30, 1909. He was the father of the Indian nuclear program. His contribution to Quantum Theory and cosmic radiation will always be remembered.
He was the first Indian to hold the Chairman position of the Atomic Energy Commission. Bhabha returned to India after beginning his professional career in nuclear physics in the United Kingdom. He played a crucial role in persuading the Congress Party's senior officials, most notably Jawaharlal Nehru, to begin the ambitious nuclear program.
Bhabha is widely regarded as the father of nuclear power in India. However, few people know that he was adamantly opposed to India producing atomic bombs, even if the country could do so. Instead, he proposed that an atomic reactor be used to alleviate India's poverty and misery.
On January 24, 1966, he died when Air India Flight 101 crashed near Mont Blanc. In his honor, the cross-section of electron-positron scattering in Quantum physics was renamed "Bhabha scattering."
Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya was born on September 15, 1860. Visvesvaraya served as the Diwan of Mysore from 1912 to 1918. He was a civil engineer, educator, and statesman. He was awarded the Bharat Ratna, the highest civilian award of the Republic of India. Sir M V urged that India try to catch up to industrialized nations because he believes that industry can help India prosper.
He is credited with designing the 'automated sluice gates' and the 'block irrigation system,' both of which are today considered engineering wonders. Engineer's Day is observed in India on his birthday, September 15.
Due to the high cost of river beds, he devised an effective filtering method through 'Collector Wells,' which were only seen in a few places around the world in 1895.
4. Radhakrishnan Venkatraman
Venkatraman Radhakrishnan was born in Tondaripet, a Chennai suburb, on May 18, 1929. Venkataraman was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He was a world-renowned Radio Astronomer.
He was an internationally renowned astronomer as well as a designer and builder of ultralight aircraft and sailboats. He was involved in the invention of a 10.4-meter millimeter-wave radio antenna, Deuterium abundance in the galaxy, Astrophysical Raman Masers, OH emission from clouds, and the low-frequency telescopes' building Gauribidanur and Mauritius. His observations and theoretical ideas solved many puzzles involving pulsars, interstellar clouds, galaxy topologies, and other celestial bodies. He died in Bangalore at the age of 81.
5. S. Chandrashekar
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar was an Indian American astrophysicist. On October 19, 1910, he was born in Lahore, British India. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1983 for his contribution to the mathematical theory of black holes with William A. Fowler. He is commemorated with the Chandrasekhar limit. He was CV Raman's nephew. Chandra became a U.S. citizen in 1953.
His most well-known work is on the energy radiation from stars, white dwarfs, stellar dynamics, stochastic process, radiative transfer, the quantum theory of the hydrogen anion, hydrodynamic and hydromagnetic stability, turbulence, equilibrium, and the stability of ellipsoidal figures of equilibrium, general relativity, mathematical theory of black holes and theory of colliding gravitational waves which are the dying remnants of stars. He died in Chicago on August 21, 1995, at 82.
6. Satyendra Nath Bose
SN Bose, an Indian mathematician and physicist, specialized in quantum mechanics. He was born on January 1, 1894, in Calcutta. He is most known for his role in the 'bosons' particle class, which was named after him by Paul Dirac to honor his contributions to the subject.
Bose joined as a Reader of the Physics Department of the University of Dhaka. In 1924 he wrote a paper on "Planck's Law and the Hypothesis of Light Quanta," which he later forwarded to Albert Einstein. Einstein recognized the importance of his invention. He translated it into German and sent it to Bose's famous Zeitschrift für Physik. Bose was able to work for two years at European X-ray and crystallography laboratories as a result of this recognition. He met Louis de Broglie, Marie Curie, and Albert Einstein during that time. The Bose-Einstein Statistics were founded on this.
Rabindranath Tagore dedicated Visva-Parichay, his only book on science, to Satyendra Nath Bose in 1937. Bose was honored with The Padma Vibhushan, India's second-highest civilian award by the Indian government in 1954.
7. Meghnad Saha
Meghnad Saha, born on October 6, 1893, in Dhaka, Bangladesh, is most known for his work on the thermal ionization of elements, which led to the formulation of the Saha Equation. In astrophysics, this equation is one of the most basic techniques used to describe star spectra' chemical and physical conditions. The Saha equation connects the spectrum's composition and appearance to the light source's temperature, allowing it to be used to determine either the star's temperature or the relative abundance of the chemical elements being studied. He was elected as a member of the Indian Parliament in 1951. A Treatise on Heat (4th ed., 1958) and A Treatise on Modern Physics were co-authored by him (1934).
8. Srinivasa Ramanujan
Ramanujan was an Indian mathematician. He was born on December 22, 1887, in Tamil Nadu. He made some outstanding contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite series, and continuing fractions despite having no professional mathematics training. At the age of 13, he independently established sophisticated theorems.
The first of Ramanujan's publications were published in the Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society in 1911. His brilliance was gradually recognized, and in 1913 he began communication with Godfrey H. Hardy, a British mathematician, which led to a special scholarship from the University of Madras and a grant from Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1914, Ramanujan overcame his religious reservations and moved to England, where Hardy educated him and cooperated on some research.
Due to the lack of vegetarian cuisine in England, he had a lot of health difficulties. He returned to India, where he died at the age of 32. During his short life, Ramanujan independently compiled nearly 3,900 results.
9. Jagadish Chandra Bose
J.C. Bose was an Indian plant physiologist and physicist. On November 30, 1858, he was born in Bikrampur, West Bengal. He pioneered the study of radio and microwave optics used to measure plants' growth and established the Indian subcontinent's experimental research base. He was the first to detect radio waves using semiconductor junctions, establishing wireless communication for the first time. Furthermore, he is often regarded as the "Father of Open Technology," as he freely shared his discoveries and labor for others to develop. His aversion to patenting his inventions is renowned.
His crescograph, which he used to assess plant response to various stimuli and propose that plants may feel pain, understand affection, and so on, is another well-known creation.
10. A.P.J Abdul Kalam
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, an Indian scientist, was born on October 15, 1931. He worked for the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the Indian Space Research Organisation as an aerospace engineer (ISRO).
Kalam began his career in the Indian Army as a small helicopter designer. Kalam was also a member of the INCOSPAR committee, chaired by Vikram Sarabhai, a prominent space scientist. In 1969, Kalam became the project director of India's first indigenous satellite launch vehicle (SLV-III), successfully launching the Rohini satellite into near-Earth orbit in July 1980.
He also served as India's 11th President from 2002 to 2007. Kalam called for measures to transform India into a developed nation by 2020 in his book India 2020. He has received various awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor.