Javatpoint Logo
Javatpoint Logo

Ubuntu Bionic

Introduction to Ubuntu Bionic

The 18.04 LTS version of Ubuntu (Bionic Beaver) is a long-term support release that was published on 26 April 2018. The 18.04.1 LTS version of Ubuntu was published three months after 26 July 2018. The 18.04.2 LTS version of Ubuntu was published six months later, on 15 February 2019. Further incremental update publications of the 18.04 LTS cycle were published as 18.04.4 and 18.04.3 at six months release cycle approximately on 8 August 2019 and 12 February 2020, respectively.

The 18.04.5 version of Ubuntu was published after six months on 18 August 2020. The 18.04.6 LTS version of Ubuntu was published after thirteen months on 17 September 2021. Plans to add a new theme were announced on 5 February 2018, developed by the Ubuntu community. However, as the theme development was buggy and unfinished as of 13 March 2018, the 18.04 LTS version of Ubuntu didn't add a new theme and rather had the Ambiance theme from 2010 as its default theme. The newer theme existed as a snap package.

  • The 18.04 LTS version of Ubuntu introduced new aspects, like color emoticons, a newer To-Do application pre-installed within the default installation and included the "Minimal Install" option into the 18.04 LTS installer version of Ubuntu, which installs the systems tools and a web browser only.
  • The default display server of the 18.04 LTS version of Ubuntu was backed to Xorg for more reliability and stability. However, Wayland was added as a part of the default install.

This version employed the 4.15 version of Linux Kernel, which consolidated a CPU controller for the cgroup v2 interface, developed SATA Link Power Management, and support for AMD secure memory encryption.

By default, a few applications were delivered as snaps for the very first time.
In reviewing the 18.04 LTS server version of Ubuntu, Phoronix Michael Larabel represented that the newly integrated text-based installer is a development over old installers.

Support Lifespan

This release contains basic LTS support for 5 years until April 2023 and paid support for ESM existing from Canonical for an extra 5 years until April 2028. For 5 years, it will be supported for Ubuntu Core, Ubuntu Server, and Ubuntu Desktop. The 18.04 version of Ubuntu Studio will be supported for nine months. Every other flavor will be supported for three years.

New aspects in 18.04

Ubuntu Bionic

Dropped support for 32-bit PowerPC

  • The powerpc port isn't added in this version.
  • ppc64el support continues as before.

Updated Packages

The 18.04.4 version of Ubuntu ships with a v5.3-based Linux kernel updated from the v5.0-based kernel in 18.04.3. It enables the latest peripherals and hardware available from Intel, IBM, and others. The 18.04 kernel offers new aspects acquired from upstream, which are as follows:

  • New support for several new AMD and Intel graphics chipsets
  • New algorithms of the default networking queue management for improving networking on congested and slow links
  • Preliminary support Wi-Fi 6
  • New block Input/Output latency controller
  • Supports BTRFS swap file
  • Various security-related developments

Also, we see remarkable Ubuntu-specific accomplishments with:

  • shiftfs filesystem offering LXD performance developments
  • Further security module and AppArmor improvements


OpenJDK 11 is the default version in 18.04 as of the 18.04.4 version.
OpenJDK 8 has shifted to the universe and will be there for the life of 18.04 to offer migration time for scripts, custom applications, or packages that can not be developed with OpenJDK 11. OpenJDK 8 will be upgraded in 18.04 until the 16.04 LTS version of Ubuntu reaches EOL in April 2021.


The OpenSSL default is upgraded from 1.1.0 to 1.1.1 LTS series getting improved ability and performance to use TLSv1.3 in some packages.

Security Improvements

In the 18.04 version of Ubuntu, gcc is fixed to default for compiling apps as PIE (Position Independent Executables) and with immediate binding to create more efficient use of ASLR (Address Space Layout Randomization). In main, every package has been re-created to take benefit of it with some exceptions. Mitigation is in place for protecting against Meltdown and Spectre.

thunderbolt and bolt tools have been approved to main to offer security management for Thunderbird devices.

Network Configuration

Since 18.04.2 has developed support for IPv6 DHCP, Extension overrides, IP tunnel support, support for 802.1x authentication and WPA Enterprise wifi, as well as integrated error reporting.

Now, will get network devices even when no IP address is described for them if they are constructed in a file in the /etc/netplan directory. It permits configuring "anonymous" integrations and bridges with networked services.

Since 17.10

With libteam, teaming support is present in NetworkManager.

Since 16.04 LTS

The DNS resolver (default) is systemd-resolved.

In, ifupdown has been detracted and is no longer available on newer installs. The installer will produce a configuration file in /etc/netplan for This configuration ( renders backend-specific configuration by either NetworkManager or systemd-networkd. Desktop users will see the system completely managed by NetworkManager because it has been the situation in old releases. Now, server users will see the network devices managed by systemd-networks. It applies only to new installations.

Note:The ifup and ifdown commands are also unavailable if the ifupdown command is by default no longer installed. We can use the command, i.e., ip, to gain the same functionality.

Other base system modifications since 16.04 LTS

  • The library, i.e., gpg, is given by gnupg2.
  • By default, a swap file will be utilized rather than a swap partition for new installs.
  • Python 2 is by default no longer installed. Python 3 has been upgraded to 3.6. it is the last LTS version in main to include Python 2.
  • The installer does not provide the encrypted home option with encryptfs-utils. It's recommended to apply full-disk encryption rather than this version.

Ubuntu Desktop

  • Fixes and updates in 18.04.2
  • Resolved a bug which avoiding the login screen from occurring on new generations of Intel GPUs (Atom and Core2)
  • In Nautilus, resolved the memory leak
  • Resolved OSK avoiding uppercase letters being enrolled
  • Upgraded Firefox to the 65 version
  • Upgraded LibreOffice to the 6.0.7 version
  • Upgraded Thunderbird to the 60.4.0 version
  • Resolved a bug which enabled the dock to display on the lock screen
  • Resolved a bug along with Livepatch notifications ordering leading to missing notifications
  • A few improvements in the performance of GNOME Shell

Since 17.10

  • By default, X is the display server. Wayland is given as a Technical Preview and is supposed to be the default display server in the 20.04 LTS version. We need to just select Ubuntu on Wayland on the login screen from the cog to try it out. Now, logs may be found at the ~/.local/share/org directory.
  • The installer provides an option, i.e., minimal install for a common desktop environment with the core system utilities and a web browser. Several official flavors of the 18.04 desktop are applying this new feature as well.
  • Applications given by GNOME have been upgraded to the 3.28 version.
    LibreOffice has been upgraded to the 6.0 version.
  • Now, emojis display in color in almost all applications. Keyboard shortcuts are Ctrl+; or Ctrl+. for emoji input selector.
  • Now, the calendar supports weather forecasts.
  • A few utilities have been shifted to the snap format for newer instals (System Monitor, Logs, Characters, and Calculator). Snap applications offer better isolation which permits them to be updated to new stable versions at the time of the LTS lifecycle.
  • The Characters application by default substitutes the older Character Map.
  • <
  • The Ubuntu software application permits easy switching between distinct channels for the snap application.
  • The To Do application has been included in the default normal install.
    Now, GNOME Shell supports Thunderbolt 3.
  • spice-vdagent is now come pre-installed for improved performance, like the GNOME Boxes application.

Other features since 16.04 LTS

  • 32-bit installer images are not given for Ubuntu Desktop.
  • Now, the Ubuntu Desktop applies GNOME rather than Unity.
  • The buttons for window control are returned on the right.
  • GDM has substituted LightDM as a default display manager. Now, the login screen applied virtual terminal 1 rather than virtual terminal 7.
  • Now, the driverless printing support feature is available.
  • The built-in screen keyboard of GNOME is used rather than Onboard.
  • These applications have got major redesigns of the user interface: Ubuntu Desktop, Settings, Remmina, Files (nautilus), and Disk Usage Analyzer.
  • The calendar supports recurring tasks and contains a Week View.
  • System log has been substituted by Logs, an application to check logs through the systemd journal.
  • By default, gconf is not installed as it has been outmoded by gsettings.
  • Now, several GNOME applications contain a popup of the keyboard shortcuts available inside the app menu.

Ubuntu Server

  • Fixes and updates in 18.04.2
  • "Main" components activated after install
  • Install failed previously on disk used for ZFS

Since 17.10

Server installer

Subiquity (the next generation server installer) gets the speedy install and comfortable live session of Ubuntu desktop to the server users at last. A new aspect of the server installer in 18.04.3 is that it can automatically check a new release of the installer, snap over start-up and provides an update to a new release if it's available.

New in 18.04.3 is also supporting encrypted LVM volume groups and reutilizing previous partitions as well as bonds, vlans, RAID, and LVM, which were included in 18.04.1.

There are a few known restrictions in the existing partition reuse:

  • Utilizing a partition that was a segment of a RAID or LVM volume group can fail: It can be implemented around by shifting to another tty and damaging the VG or RAID by hand, then rebooting. If there is no other information on a similar drive that we wish to keep, entirely formatting the drive also works.
  • The installer can't remove or add individual partitions: We can format and mount previous partitions but not include a partition to free space or delete one partition from a drive.

Ifupdown has been detracted in and is not available on new installs. On the Ubuntu server, backend configuration is by default given by systemd-networkd.

LXD 3.0

LXD is a system container manager that ports with every Ubuntu server.
Ubuntu 18.04 contains every new LXD 3.0 version. A few of the highlights are as follows:

  • Several improvements in the command line tools
  • Supports port redirection
  • Extended /dev/lxd API in the containers
  • Custom storage volume remote transfer
  • Supports NVIDIA runtime passthrough
  • LXD server clustering

QEMU 2.11.1

QEMU has been upgraded to the 2.11.1 version.

Migrations from former releases are supported as usual. When upgrading, it's always recommended for upgrading the machine types permitting guests to completely benefit from every improvement and fix of the most recent release.

libvirt 4.0

It has been upgraded to the 4.0 version. Now, the packaging creates storage drivers as pluggable libraries. It can slim down the installation needs, but a few drivers of less interest will find in the universe. Besides, it means that some formerly developed features like zfs or rbd now might need us to install the package after updating.

DPDK 17.11.x

Ubuntu contains 17.11.x, the latest stable version DPDK branch.


Crony will substitute ntpd as the suggested server for the NTP Protocol in Ubuntu 18.04. The comparison between Chrony maintainers and NTP servers may interest a few users looking to find a high-level cause for why this modification was made.

The base system comes with the systemd-timesyncd for general time sync requirements. Chrony is just required to operate as a time server or, if we wish, the advertised more efficient and accurate syncing.


The release was upgraded to 18.2. Some remarkable new aspects are as follows:

  • VMware: It supports 64-bit environments and recognizes the OVF datasource given.
  • GCE: Changes and improvements to ssh key nature for default user.
  • Now, KVM2 and NoCloudKVM tests execute in continuous integration.
  • Azure pre-provisioning speed developments
  • New cloud support: HetznerCloud and IBMCloud now have official OpenTelekom, and datasources are now identified by cloud-id.
  • New Ubuntu modules, i.e., cloud-config to manage Ubuntu advantage service and snaps.
  • New tools of cloud-init command-line are available: clean, analyze, and status.
  • OpenNebula: Improved support for network configuration.


The release was upgraded to 18.1. Some remarkable new aspects are as follows:

  • Has experimental filesystem support, such as ZFS on root
  • Includes support to install remote sources, i.e., a filesystem image.
  • Includes support for pollinate user-agent configuration.
  • Improved dirty device's device teardown for supporting re-deployment.
  • Now, default config tars curtin longs on error automatically with a new command, i.e., curtin collect-logs
  • Storage: Accept the option for filesystem mount
  • Extensive integration test improvements and coverage.


The release was upgraded to 2.4b2. Some remarkable new aspects are as follows:

  • Includes audit logging
  • Includes KVM pod Support for creating tags, choosing the storage pool, and composing machines with more than one storage pool
  • Includes user interface for DNS management
  • Includes the commissioning template framework for all firmware upgrades.
  • Improve user interface performance by performance
  • Improve the backend performance of MAAS
  • Improve the user interface for the settings

Installing Ubuntu Bionic

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS has been published with various new aspects and improvements. A few of the important aspects are as follows:

  • Update and support of Ubuntu 18.04 LTS for the next 5 years.
  • New stable and latest Linux kernel version 4.15.
  • Installer provides a new "minimal installation" option.
  • Upgraded LibreOffice 6.0.
  • Supports beautiful and attractive color emojis.
  • Also, 18.04 LTS comes with a fresh Suru icon theme that will create our desktop more colorful.
  • Upgraded GNOME Desktop Environment.
  • XORG substitutes Wayland and is a new default display server.
  • Improved and fast boot speed.
  • Many other major bug fixes and improvements

Minimal system requirement of Ubuntu Bionic

  • Dual-core processor (2 GH)
  • 2 GB RAM
  • Installer media (USB or DVD)
  • Free 25 GB hard disk space
  • Internet connectivity (optional) if we are planning to install third-party updates and software during the installation process

Steps for installing Ubuntu Bionic on our Desktop or Laptop

Step 1: Ensure that we have the latest release of Ubuntu 18.04 LTS. If not, we can download the ISO file. We can install a 64-bit version on a system that is supported by 64-bit architecture because Ubuntu 18.04 LTS comes in a 64-bit version only.

Step 2: Make a bootable disk

Once the above file is successfully downloaded, now we need to burn our downloaded ISO image into the DVD/USB or flash drive to restart the system from that drive. Make sure we also modify the boot sequence so that the computer restarts with the bootable DVD/CD or flash drive.

Step 3: Boot from DVD/USB or Flash Drive

We can see the below screen displayed before the options, including "Install Ubuntu" and "Try Ubuntu", as displayed in the following image once a computer is booted with the bootable disk.

Even though if we click on the "Try Ubuntu" option, we can have a sneak peek into the 18.04 LTS without installing it on our system. Our aim here is to install Ubuntu 18.04 LTS in our system, so we need to click on the "Install Ubuntu" option to proceed with the installation process.

Ubuntu Bionic

Step 4: Select the keyboard layout

We can select our preferred keyboard layout and press the "Continue" button. English keyboard is by default selected, and if we wish to change it, we can change it here and press "Continue".

Ubuntu Bionic

Step 5: Preparing for installing Ubuntu OS and other software

We will be given the below options on the next screen, including:

  • Type of Installation: Minimal installation or Normal installation. If we wish for a minimal installation, choose the second option. Otherwise, we can select the normal installation.
  • Download Updates While Installing Ubuntu: We can choose this option if our system contains internet activity at the time of the installation process.
  • Install third-party software for graphics, Wi-Fi hardware, and additional media formats: We can choose this option if our system contains internet connectivity.

Press the "Continue" button to continue with the installation.

Ubuntu Bionic

Step 6: choose the right installation type

The installer will present us with the below installation options, which are as follows:

  • Erase disk and install Ubuntu: We can select this option if our system will have Ubuntu only, and removing anything other than that's not an issue. It ensures a new copy of Ubuntu 18.04 LTS is successfully installed on our system.
  • Encrypt the new Ubuntu installation for security: We can select this option if we are searching for extended security for our disks because our disks will be encrypted completely. If we are a beginner, it's better not to be worried about this option.
  • Use LVM with the new Ubuntu installation: We can select this option if we wish to utilize the LVM-based file systems.
  • Something else: We can select this option if we are an advanced user or wish to manually establish our partitions and wish to install Ubuntu with the previous operating system (maybe Windows OS or other Linux versions).
Ubuntu Bionic

Step 7: Select the time zone

We can select our time zone and press the "Continue" button.

Ubuntu Bionic

Step 8: Provide the user credentials

On the next screen, we will be asked to give our user credentials. We need to give our name, username, computer name, and password for logging into Ubuntu 18.04 LTS.

Press the "Continue" button to start the installation process.

Step 9: Installing Ubuntu 18.04 LTS

The installation process of Ubuntu 18.04 LTS begins now and will take approx 5-10 minutes, depending on our computer speed.

Ubuntu Bionic

Step 10: Reboot the system

Remove the DVD/USB from the drive and press the "Restart Now" option to restart our system once the installation process is completed.

Step 11: Log in to our Ubuntu 18.04 desktop

Once our system has been restarted after the installation process, we will receive the login screen and provide the username and password that we fixed during installation.

Next Topic#

Youtube For Videos Join Our Youtube Channel: Join Now


Help Others, Please Share

facebook twitter pinterest

Learn Latest Tutorials


Trending Technologies

B.Tech / MCA