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Ubuntu vs. Windows

Introduction to Windows

Commonly, Microsoft windows are referred to as simply Windows. These windows are a collection of many families of the proprietary graphical operating system, each of which is marketed and developed by Microsoft.

All family caters to a particular sector of the computer industry. Many active families of Microsoft Windows include Windows IoT and Windows NT. These might envelopes subfamilies (for example, Windows Embedded Compact or Windows Server).

Various different families of Microsoft Windows include Windows Mobile, Windows Phone, and Windows 9x.

On 20 November 1985, Microsoft announced an operating platform named Windows as a graphical shell of an operating system for MS-DOS in feedback to the developing interest in GUIs.

  • Apple came to look at Windows as an unfair encroachment over their innovation inside the development of GUI as worked on products like Macintosh and Lisa.
  • Windows operating systems are still the most famous in every country on PC.
  • In 2014, Microsoft however admitted losing their majority of the entire market of the operating system to android due to the extreme growth in android Smartphone sales.
  • In 2014, several devices sold of Windows were very less as compared to sold of android devices.
  • However, this comparison might not be relevant completely because these two operating systems target distinct platforms traditionally.
  • The latest Windows version for PC, embedded devices, and tablet is Windows 10 20H2 version as of 2020 October.
  • The latest server computers version is the Windows server 20H2 version.
  • Also, a specialized Windows version executes on the Xbox One video game console.

Family tree of Windows

The family trees of Windows are categorized on the basis:

By the role of marketing

Microsoft (which is a windows developer) has registered various trademarks, all of which specify a Windows operating system family that targets a particular sector of the computing industry.

The below families of windows were being developed actively as of 2014:

Ubuntu vs. Windows
  • Windows NT: It began as an operating system family with Windows NT 3.1 version. It is an operating system for workstations and server computers. Now, it combines three subfamilies of the operating system published almost at a time and distributes a similar kernel:
  • Windows: Windows is an operating system for Smartphone, tablets, and mainstream personal computers. The latest version of Windows is Windows 10. The primary competitor of this type of family is macOS by Android for many mobile devices and Apple for many personal computers.
  • Windows Server: Windows Server can be defined as an operating system for various server computers. The most recent version of Windows server is Windows server 2019. It was adopted a powerful naming scheme, unlike the client sibling. The primary competitor of this type of family is Linux operating system.
  • Windows PE: Windows PE is a lightweight standard of its Windows sibling, meant for operating as a live OS.
    It is used to install windows on bare-metal computers, troubleshooting, or recovery purposes. The latest version of Windows PE is Windows PE 10.

Windows IoT (Windows Embedded previously): Microsoft initially expanded Windows CE as a normal purpose OS for all devices which were extremely resource restricted to be known as a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE version was eventually known as Windows Embedded Compact and it was developed upon Windows Compact trademark. It also associates Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Automotive, Windows Embedded Handheld,, and Windows Embedded Industry.

The below families of Windows are no longer being expanded:

Ubuntu vs. Windows
  • Windows 9x: Windows 9x is an OS that targeted a consumer market. It was discontinued due to the suboptimal performance (the world of PC called its version Windows Me which was one of the worst operating systems of each time).
    Now, Microsoft caters to a consumer market along with the Windows NT version.
  • Windows Mobile: It is a predecessor to the Windows phone. It was defined as a mobile phone operating system. The initial version was known as Pocket PC 2000.
    Windows Mobile 2003, the third version is the initial version for adopting the Windows Mobile trademark. Its last version was Windows Mobile 6.5.
  • Windows Phone: Windows Phone is an OS sold to smartphone manufacturers only. The initial version was Windows phone 7 pursued by Windows phone 8.1 and Windows Phone 8.
    This Windows family was accomplished by Windows 10 mobile. Also, it is now discontinued.

The Version History of Windows

Collectively, the word window specifies any for every of various Microsoft operating system product generation. Generally, these products are divided as follows:

Early Versions of Windows

The windows history dates return to 1981 during Microsoft began to operate on a program known as "Interface Manager".
In November 1983, it was published (before the Macintosh but after Apple Lisa) under the "windows" name; however, the windows 1.0 version was not published until 1985 November. Windows 1.0 version was finished with the operating system of Apple, however, gained little popularity.

This version is not a fully operating system; instead, it extends MS-Dos.
Windows 1.0 shell can be defined as a program which is called MS-Dos Executive.
Elements included a calendar, calculator, clipboard viewer, card file, clock, notepad, control panel, reversi, paint, write, and terminal.
This version doesn't permit overlapping windows. Rather every window is

Windows 2.0 version was published in December 1987. It was more famous than its predecessor. It provides several developments to the Memory management and user interface.
Windows 2.03 version modified the operating system through tiled windows to various overlapping windows. The output of this modification led to the Apple computer filing any suit beyond Microsoft alleging infringement copyrights of Apple.
Windows 2.0 version published more refined keyboard shortcuts and again makes use of the expended memory as well.

Windows 2.1 version was published in two distinct versions which are windows/386 and windows/286.
Windows/386 applies the virtual 8086 modes of Intel 80386 for multitasking many programs of DOS and also a paged memory model for emulating developed memory with the help of existed extended memory.

Besides, Windows/286 executes on both Intel 80286 and Intel 8086 processors.
It executes inside the real mode but could make use of a high memory area.

Windows 3.x

Windows 3.0 version was published in 1990. This version developed the design mostly due to loadable virtual device drivers and virtual memory that permit windows for sharing arbitrary devices among the applications of Multi tasked DOS.

The applications of windows 3.0 can execute inside a protected mode which provides them authorization to various memory megabytes without any obligation for participating in the scheme of software virtual memory.

They execute in a similar address space in which the partitioned memory gives a protection degree. Also, Windows 3.0 featured development to do user interface.
Windows 3.1 was developed and available on 1992 March 1. Windows for various workgroups, a unique version along with integrated peer-to-peer networking comes and a number of versions of 3.11 were published. It was sold with Windows 3.1 version.

Windows 3.2 version was published in 1994. It was an upgraded version of the 3.1 version of the Windows Chinese version.
This updated version was restricted to this language version because it only fixed problems related to the complicated writing system of this Chinese language.

Windows 9x

Windows 95 version was published in 1995 on August 24. Windows 95 defined support for native preemptive multitasking, plug and play hardware, 32-bit applications, long file names, and given increased stability on its predecessor.
Also, Windows 95 defined an object-oriented and redesigned user interface that is substituting the past program manager along with Windows Explorer shell, taskbar, and Start menu.

Windows NT

A new development team in Microsoft started work over a revamped version of the OS/2 operating system of Microsoft and IBM which is called NT OS/2.
This version was intended to be multi-user, a secure operating system having POSIX compatibility and a portable, modular kernel having preemptive multitasking and also support for more than one processor architectures.

Windows XP

Windows XP is the major Windows NT version and it was published on October 25, 2001. The windows XP introduction aimed at unifying the consumer-oriented series of Windows 9x along with the architecture defined by Windows NT

Windows XP would define a redesigned user interface streamlined Internet Explorer 6, networking and multimedia features, intégration with .NET Passport services of Microsoft, modes for helping give compatibility with the software developed for previous Windows versions, and functionality of remote assistance.

Windows Vista

Windows Vista was published on November 30, 2006. It included so many new features through a user interface and redesigned shell to necessary technical changes along with a specific focus on features of security.

This version was available in a wide variety of editions and it was subject to a few criticisms like performance drop, criticism of newer UAC, longer boot time, and stricter license agreement.

Windows Server 2008 (a server counterpart of vista) was published in 2008.

Windows 7

Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7 were published on July 22, 2000, 9 RTM (short for release to manufacturing) during the former was published on October 22, 2009.
Windows vista defined a huge variety of new features, but Windows 7 was developed to be an incremental upgrade and more focused on the windows line along with the aim of being compatible with hardware and applications with the version Windows Vista was compatible already. Windows 7 contains multi-touch support, a home networking system known as Home Group, a redesigned window shell along with an updated taskbar, and improvements in performance.

Windows 8.1 and 8

This version of Windows is the successor of Windows 7 and it was published on 26 October 2012.
Several significant modifications were made on this version including the definition of the user interface based around the Metro design language of Microsoft along with various optimizations for many touch-based devices like tablets and all-in-one personal computers.

Windows 10

Microsoft released Windows 10 on 30 September 2014. This version is the successor of Windows 8.1. It was published on 29 July 2015 and defines shortcomings inside the user interface initially introduced in the 8 versions.

Various changes on the personal computer include start menu returns, the ability to execute Windows store apps in windows over the desktop instead of full-screen mode, and a virtual desktop system.

Multilingual support

This type of support has been created into windows since the 3.0 version of windows. The language for the interface and keyboard can be modified by the language and region Control Panel.

Elements for each supported input language like input method editors are installed at the time of Windows installation automatically.
Also, the IMEs of third-party may be installed when the user realizes that the given one is not sufficient for their requirements.

Platform support

The version Windows NT contains support for various distinct platforms before the x86-based PC became dominant inside the professional world. The 4.0 version of Windows NT and its predecessor provided support for MIPS R4000, DEC Alpha, and PowerPC.

Windows CE

Officially, Windows CE is called Windows Embedded Compact. It is a version of windows that executes on minimalistic computers such as satellite navigation systems and a few mobile phones.
Windows CE worked according to its dedicated kernel or dubbed Windows CE kernel.

Xbox OS

It is an unofficial name provided to the Windows version that executes on the Xbox One. Xbox One is a more particular implementation with the focus on virtualization because it is three OSes executing at once. Microsoft updates this version of OS every month.

These updates could be downloaded through the Live Service of Xbox. Also, the system of Xbox One permits backward compatibility along with Xbox 360. The system of Xbox 360 is also backward compatible with the actual Xbox.

An alternative implementation of Windows

These alternatives are:

Ubuntu vs. Windows

1 Wine: An open-source and free Windows API implementation, permitting one to execute several applications of Windows on x86 based environment including macOS, Linux, and Unix.
The developers of wine refer to it as the "compatibility layer" and apply Windows-style API for emulating the environment of Windows.

  • CrossOver: It is a package of Wine with various licensed fonts. The developers of CrossOver are contributing to Wine regularly and concentrate on Wine executing supported applications officially.
  • Cedega: It is a Wine fork by TransGaming Technologies. These technologies are developed specifically for executing games of Microsoft in Linux. A Cedega version is called Cider permits games of Windows to execute on macOS.
  • Linux Unified Kernel: To the Linux kernel, it is a collection of patches permitting several executable files of Windows in Linux and a few drivers of Windows to be used.
  • Darwine: It is a Wine port for Darwin and macOS. It operates by executing Wine on QEMU.

2. ReactOS: It is an open-source operating system intended to execute similar software like Windows. It is original developed for simulating the 4.0 version of Windows NT, but now focusing on the compatibility of Windows 7.

3. Linspire: It is a commercial Linux distro that is initially developed with the aim of executing major software of Windows.

4. Freedows OS: It is an open-source experiment at making a clone of Windows for x 86 environments, intended to be published upon the GNU General Public License. In 1996, it was started by Reece K. Sellin, but the project was never successful and complete. It was declined in 2002.

Introduction to Ubuntu

Ubuntu is a distribution of Linux which is based on Debian. Mostly, it combines the open source and many free software. Officially, Ubuntu is released in three essential editions which are mentioned as follows:

  • Server
  • Core for robots and internet of things devices
  • Desktop

All of these editions can execute in any virtual machine or ver the computer alone. Ubuntu is a popular operating system for cloud computing with OpenStack support. The desktop of Ubuntu (default) has been GNOME as of the 17.10 Ubuntu versions.

Ubuntu is released every six months with many releases of LTS every two years. The most recent release of LTS is Focal Fossa (20.04) since 2020 22 October. The current standard release is Groovy Gorilla (20.10). It is providing support for nine months.

This Linux distribution is proposed by canonical and a team of other developers which is based on a model called meritocratic governance model.
Canonical provides updates of support and security for every release of Ubuntu, starting by the publication date and until the publication gets its improved end of life date. Canonical produces revenue with the sale premium services related to Ubuntu.

Background of Ubuntu

Ubuntu is designed on the infrastructure and structure of Debian. It combines Linux server, desktop, and discontinued tablet and phone operating system system. Predictably, Ubuntu publishes updated versions every six months and each of the publication get no cost support for nine months along with beneficial low-risk bug fixes substantially, high-impact bug conservative and fixes, and security fixes.

The first release was announced in 2004 October. The packages of Ubuntu are based on packages through the unstable Debian branch which could be synchronized every six months. These distributions apply the tools of package management (like Ubuntu and APT Software) and deb package pattern of Debian.

Essentially, Ubuntu and Debian packages are not binary compatible with each other. However, the packages might require to be recreated via the source to be applied in Ubuntu. Several Ubuntu developers are the managers packages in Debian also.

Ubuntu is currently financed via Canonical Ltd. Canonical and Mark Shuttleworth published the creation of Ubuntu foundations on 8 July 2005 and provided starting US$10 million funding.
The foundation focuses to ensure the improvement and support for all Ubuntu future versions.

Ubuntu announced the developers support for third-party cloud management platforms on 12 March 2009 like those applied in Amazon EC2.

Features of Ubuntu

  • The installation (default) of Ubuntu includes a huge range of software that associates Thunderbird, Transmission, Firefox, LibreOffice, and many lightweight games such as chess and Sudoku.
  • Many additional packages of software can be authorised using the Ubuntu software (built-in) and another tool of APT-based package management.
  • Various additional packages of software that are no longer and by default installed like GIMP, Synaptic, Pidgin, and Evolution, are accessible inside the repositories and installable by using the primary tool as well or any other tools of APT-based package management.
  • Cross-distribution flatpaks and snap packages are also available. These two packages permit installing software, like a few software of Microsoft, in almost all big Linux OS.
  • GNOME file is the file manager (default) which is formerly called Nautilus.
  • By default, every installed application software is a free software. Ubuntu redistributes some hardware drivers as well that only exists in binary format. However, these kinds of packages are openly marked in the restricted component.

Security of Ubuntu

Ubuntu by default provides security. User programs run with low privileges and it can't corrupt the operating system or other files of users. The sudo tool is applied for giving privileges to implement various administrative operations, which permit the root account for remaining locked. It also supports inexperienced users through opening security holes or enabling system changes for better security. Polkit is being highly implemented over the desktop.

By default, most of the ports of a network can be closed for avoiding hacking. A firewall (built-in) permits all the users who are installing network servers for managing access.
The GUI exists for configuring it. Ubuntu could compile its many packages with GCC aspects like buffer overflow protection and PIE for strengthening the software. These added aspects greatly develop security performance.

Ubuntu also provides support to complete disk encryption and encryption of a private as well as home directories.

Installation of Ubuntu

The requirements of a system change among Ubuntu products. A PC using a 2 GHz dual-core processor, 25GB of free disk space, and 4GB of RAM is suggested for the Ubuntu 20.0 desktop release of 4 LTS.

There are several other distributions of Ubuntu such as Xubuntu and Lubuntu for less strong computers. Ubuntu provides support for the architecture of ARM. It is also available on the Power ISA during the earlier architecture of PowerPC was at an individual point supported unofficially, and now newer CPUs of Power ISA are supported. Officially, AMD64 architecture (x86-64) is supported.

  • Live images are the complicated format for various users for accessing and installing Ubuntu subsequently. These could be downloaded as the disk images and burnt to the DVD and booted.
  • Additionally, the installation of a USB flash drive can be used for booting Kubuntu and Ubuntu in a way that permits permanent storage of user settings and a USB-installed system's portability between several physical machines.
  • The Live USB Creator of Ubuntu can be used for installing Ubuntu over a USB drive in newer Ubuntu versions (without or with a live DVD or CD).
  • Developing a bootable USB drive using persistence is as efficient as dragging any slider for deciding how much capacity to preserve for endurance. Ubuntu utilises Casper for it.
  • The desktop version could also be installed using the Netboot image which applies the Debian-installer and permits certain specialist Ubuntu installations: upgrading via earlier installations without applying network access, setting up automated deployments, RAID, or LVM partitioning, installs over many systems using 256 RAM MB.

Variants of Ubuntu

The Ubuntu desktop is the version suggested for almost all the users. It is simply named as Ubuntu and formally named as Ubuntu Desktop Edition.
It is created for laptop PCs and desktops and supported via Canonical officially. Since, Ubuntu version 17.10, the GNOME shell can be defined as the desktop environment (default).
Since Ubuntu version 11.04 to Ubuntu version 17.04, the default interface was Unity desktop interface. Many other versions are differentiated by giving a distinct desktop platform.
Often, Xfce and LXqt are suggested to apply with earlier PCs that might have less power of processing and memory exists.

Official distributions

Many flavors and versions of Ubuntu simply install a distinct group of default packages as compared to the standard Ubuntu desktop. Because these versions distribute similar package repositories, similar software is present for all of them.
The Core of Ubuntu OS is a sole exception because it includes only authentication to the packages inside the Snap store.

Some of the major distributions and their description are discussed below:

Ubuntu vs. Windows

Kubuntu: It is a version of Ubuntu that is applying a KDE interface rather than Unity and GNOME interfaces applied by Ubuntu desktop.

Ubuntu Core: It is a version of Ubuntu concentrated over embedded and IoT systems. It doesn't use the package manager of classical apt unlike many other variants but relies over the Snap packages entirely.

Lubuntu: This distribution is a version of Ubuntu that is more energy-efficient, lighter, and less resource-hungry. It applies the LXqt desktop platform (applied LXDE before standard 18.10).

Ubuntu Kylin: It is a type of Ubuntu focused over the Chinese market.

Ubuntu Budgie: It is a standard of Ubuntu using Budgie.

  • Ubuntu MATE: It is another standard of Ubuntu using MATE. It is a desktop platform forked by the code base of a now-defunct GNOME 2. It concentrates on the desktop metaphor.

Xubuntu: It is a version of Ubuntu with Xfce. This version is intended for applying on less powerful systems or those who disclose the highly capable desktop platform on the faster systems and applies GTK+ applications mostly as well.

Ubuntu Studio: Ubuntu Studio works according to Ubuntu. It is providing many open-source applications for the development of multimedia focused at graphics, audio, and video editors.

Ubuntu Server: Ubuntu contains a server edition that uses similar repositories of APT to the Ubuntu Desktop Edition. Main differences among them are the X Window environment's absence inside the default installation of any server edition (but, one could easily be installed including KDE, Unity, GNOME, or Xfce) and a few changes to the process of installation.

It provides support hardware virtualization. Also, it could be executed within a virtual machine either inside a hypervisor or host operating system such as Kernel-based Virtual Machine, Oracle, QEMU, Microsoft Hyper-V, VMware ESXi, Citrix XenServer, or other IBM PC compatible emulator or virtualizer.

Difference between Ubuntu and Windows

Some of the key differences between Ubuntu and Windows operating system are explained below in a tabular format:

S.No. Features Ubuntu Windows
1. Developer Ubuntu operating system is designed by Canonical Ltd. Windows operating systems are designed by Microsoft.
2. Release Ubuntu OS was developed in 2004 October. Windows OS was developed in 1985 November and its 10 edition was published in 2015 July.
3. Family Ubuntu systems belong to the family of Linux. Windows systems belong to the family of Windows NT.
4. Source Model Ubuntu is an open-source type of software. Windows OS is a closed-source type of software.
5. Userland The userland of Ubuntu is GNU. The userland of Windows OS is .NET and Windows NT.
6. Viruses Viruses cannot survive in Ubuntu. The attack of the virus is very common in Windows.
7. Updates In Ubuntu operating system, the update is easy. In Windows 10, every time we have to update Java.
8. Photoshop and Adobe Support Ubuntu does not provide much support. Windows works well for this support.
9. Requirements for Usage Consumers need not contain any license for using this software. Consumers need to contain an authenticated and valid license for using Windows.
10. Requirement of Source Code Consumers can not go by the source code of Windows for learning and modifying it. Consumers can go by the source code of Ubuntu for learning and modifying it.
11. Kernel Type Kernel Ubuntu type is Monolithic. Kernel Windows type is Hybrid.
12. Resource Utilization Ubuntu operating system utilizes fewer resources as compared to Windows. Windows operating system utilizes more resources as compared to Ubuntu.
13. Gaming Objectives For various gaming objectives, Ubuntu OSes are not very good as Windows. For various gaming objectives, Windows OSes are good, unlike Ubuntu.
14. User Interface (Default) Ubuntu unity (GNOME) is the user interface (default) in Ubuntu. Windows shell is the user interface (default) in Windows.
15. Customization Ubuntu contains several options for customization as compared to Windows. Windows contains fewer options for customization as compared to Ubuntu.
16. Cost This software is free of cost available. It is paid software.
17. Security Ubuntu is more secure than Windows. It is less secure than Ubuntu.
18. Privacy-Focused Ubuntu is more privacy-focused as compared to Windows 10 version. Windows OS is less privacy-focused as compared to Ubuntu.
19. User Community The user community of Ubuntu is professional developers. The user community of Windows OS is game player and ordinary user.
20. Learning Ubuntu software can't easily be learned and begin with than Windows because it primarily operates with commands. Besides, Windows OS can easily be learned and begin with than Ubuntu.
21. Performance (Core and RAM) Ubuntu is better than Windows from a performance perspective. Windows OS is okay.
22. MS Office Work Ubuntu software is comfortable working with MS Office. MS Office works in Windows excellently.
23. Entertainment Ubuntu is not designed for entertainment purposes. In Windows, photos, videos, songs, and movies can be managed easily.
24. Programming The programming part of Ubuntu is very easy. The programming part of Windows is not much compatible but comfortable.


Both Ubuntu and Windows have their features, drawbacks, and user community. The tester and developer community prefers to use Ubuntu software.
Besides, the gamer and general user community likes to use Windows software. Hence, it is primarily based on various choices and requirements of the user.
Windows OS is the default selection because it can easily be learned and worked. However, Ubuntu OS is a little bit complicated but also better than Windows for several reasons.

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