Upcasting and Downcasting in C++
This section will discuss Upcasting and Downcasting with an example in the C++ programming language. When we convert one data type into another type, the process is called typecasting. But the, Upcasting and downcasting are the types of object typecasting. Suppose the Parent and Child class has two types of object, parent_obj and child_obj, which can be cast into the Parent to Child and Child to Parent using the Upcasting and Downcasting in C++ programming.
It is the process to create the derived class's pointer or reference from the base class's pointer or reference, and the process is called Upcasting. It means the upcasting used to convert the reference or pointer of the derived class to a base class. Upcasting is safe casting as compare to downcasting. It allows the public inheritance that implicitly cast the reference from one class to another without an explicit typecast. By default, the upcasting create is-a relationship between the base and derived classes.
The derived class can inherit all the base class properties that include data members and the member function to execute the function using the derived class object, as we do with a base object.
Program to demonstrate the Upcasting in C++
Let's consider an example to convert the derived class's pointer to the base class's pointer in the C++ programming language.
It is the Super function of the Base class
The Downcasting is an opposite process to the upcasting, which converts the base class's pointer or reference to the derived class's pointer or reference. It manually cast the base class's object to the derived class's object, so we must specify the explicit typecast. The downcasting does not follow the is- a relation in most of the cases. It is not safe as upcasting. Furthermore, the derived class can add new functionality such as; new data members and class member's functions that use these data members. Still, these functionalities could not apply to the base class.
Program to demonstrate the downcasting in C++
Let's create an example to downcast the base class's object to the derived class in the C++ programming language.
It is the function of the Child class
Program to demonstrate the upcasting and the downcasting in C++
Let's consider an example to use the downcasting and the upcasting in C++ to convert the base class to derive and the derived class's object to the base class.
I am in the Parent class I am in the Parent class I am in the Myson class